Congenital anomalies are also known as birth defects, congenital disorders or congenital malformations. Birth defects, World Anomalies of development of children Assembly report, A63. This test is almost entirely voluntary in nature.
A useful, but simplistic method is to classify anomalies according to the fixation distance at which they are manifest. DI as either primary or secondary, and their characteristics are described in Table 1. Both types may be associated with convergence excess. If the NPC is normal this may be described as primary DE and if deficient, it may be described as secondary DE. CE in similar terms, there being orthophoria or moderate esophoria for distance and more marked esophoria for near, with the cause being an excessive ACA ratio. Another cause can be of a psychosomatic nature.
This is very rare and may be associated with ciliary spasm. Convergence cannot be elicited even with a prism. All new cases require referral for neuro-ophthalmological opinion. Despite this simple definition, CI may probably be more correctly described as a syndrome. CI is one of the most common causes of ocular discomfort. Some authors have defined CI in terms of a single sign such as a remote NPC. CI when the NPC was more remote than 10 cm when measured with a penlight.
CI if a standard NPC measurement was remote or jump convergence was inadequate. This variability may be attributed to variations in the definition of CI and to differences between samples. CI, they failed to provide a population description. NPC, and reduced positive fusional reserves. 125 were symptomatic and reported that in the asymptomatic patients, the large exophoria and remote NPC were accompanied by excellent positive fusional reserves. 10,022 aged from 6- to 70- years.
310 patients under the age of 40 showed an NPC greater than 10cm. 200 consecutive patients aged 8- to 83- years. 735 children aged 7- to 14-year-old. 10 cm, they found that 8.