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Would you like to share your views of safeguarding children practice in Sunderland with Board members? Would you like to contribute to improving outcomes for children and young people? Sunderland in October 2004 following the drive to improve outcomes for children. It was formed as a statutory requirement of the Children Act 2004. The SSCB is a key multi agency statutory mechanism for promoting and safeguarding the welfare of children in Sunderland. It has high-level officer representation from partner agencies, both statutory and voluntary, across the City.
The SSCB structure consists of a number of sub committees that carry out specific functions in relation to the SSCB’s responsibilities. Your Feedback Matters If you have any ideas on how we can improve this website, or if you would like to contact us for advice or information on our work you can Contact Us. This article is about polygynous marriage practices. For polygynous animal mating, see polygyny in animals. In Eritrea, India, Philippines, Singapore, and Sri Lanka polygamy is only legal for Muslims.
In Nigeria and South Africa, polygamous marriages under customary law and for Muslims are legally recognised. In Mauritius, polygamous unions have no legal recognition. Muslim men may, however, “marry” up to four women, but they do not have the legal status of wives. In some countries where polygamy is illegal, and sometimes even when legal, at times it is known for men to have one or more mistresses, whom they do not marry. The status of a mistress is not that of a wife, and any children born of such relationships were and some still are considered illegitimate and subject to legal disadvantage.
Today, polygyny is more widespread in Africa than in any other continent. Some scholars see the slave trade’s impact on the male-to-female sex ratio as a key factor in the emergence and fortification of polygynous practices in regions of Africa. Throughout the African polygyny belt stretching from Senegal in the west to Tanzania in the east, as many as a third to a half of married women are in polygynous unions, and polygyny is found especially in West Africa. Saharan Africa is rooted in the sexual division of labor in hoe-farming and the large economic contribution of women. In the regions of shifting cultivation where polygyny is most frequently recorded, labor is often starkly divided between genders. The task of felling trees in preparation of new plots is usually done by older boys and very young men.
An elderly cultivator, with several wives and likely several young male children, benefits from having a much larger workforce within his household. By the combined efforts of his young sons and young wives, he may gradually expand his cultivation and become more prosperous. A man with a single wife has less help in cultivation and is likely to have little or no help for felling trees. Anthropologist Jack Goody’s comparative study of marriage around the world, using the Ethnographic Atlas, demonstrated a historical correlation between the practice of extensive shifting horticulture and polygyny in the majority of Sub-Saharan African societies. Goody’s observation regarding African male farming systems is discussed and supported by anthropologists Douglas R. Most research into the determinants of polygyny has focused on macro-level factors. Widespread polygyny is linked to the kinship groups that share descent from a common ancestor.
According to scientific studies, the human mating system is considered to be moderately polygynous, based both on surveys of world populations, and on characteristics of human reproductive physiology. Scholars have argued that in farming systems where men do most of the agriculture work, a second wife can be an economic burden rather than an asset. In order to feed an additional wife, the husband must either work harder himself or he must hire laborers to do part of the work. In such regions, polygyny is either non-existent or is a luxury which only a small minority of rich farmers can indulge. Africa is precisely its economic aspect, for a man with several wives commands more land, can produce more food for his household and can achieve a high status due to the wealth which he can command. The economist Michèle Tertilt concludes that countries that practice polygyny are less economically stable than those that practice monogamy. Polygynous countries usually have a higher fertility rate, fewer savings reserves, and a lower GDP.