What is the burden of oral disease? Dental caries is still caries of teeth at children of early age major oral health problem in most industrialized countries, while it appears to be less common and less severe in most African countries. It is also a most prevalent oral disease in several Asian and Latin-American countries, while it appears to be less common and less severe in most African countries.
In many developing countries, access to oral health services is limited and teeth are often left untreated or are extracted because of pain or discomfort. Throughout the world, losing teeth is still seen as a natural consequence of ageing. Globally, most children have signs of gingivitis and, among adults, the initial stages of periodontal diseases are prevalent. Figure 2 illustrates the periodontal health status of 35-44-year-olds by WHO region, using the so-called Community Periodontal Index. In industrialized countries, studies show that smoking is a major risk factor for adult periodontal disease, responsible for more than half of the periodontitis cases among this age group. Risk decreases when smokers quit and the prevalence of periodontal disease has decreased in countries experiencing reductions in tobacco use.
While oral and pharyngeal cancers are both preventable, they remain a major challenge to oral health programmes. Incidence rates for oral cancer vary in men from 1-10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in many countries. In South Central Asia, cancer of the oral cavity ranks amongst the three most common types of cancer. In Asia, the age standardized incidence rate per 100,000 population ranges from 0. Qat is a leafy narcotic substance that is popular in several countries in East Africa and the Arab Peninsula. Qat can be consumed as a liquid in the form of tea or smoked like tobacco. However, the most common mode of ingestion is by chewing the fresh leaves.
Consumption of Qat can lead to adverse oral effects including oral mucosal lesions, dryness of the mouth, discoloration of teeth, poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease. There are variations in oral health profiles across regions. In contrast to dental caries and periodontal disease, reliable data on the frequency and severity of oro-dental trauma are still lacking in most countries, particularly in developing countries. 6-12 years in the Middle East.
Estimates of the frequency of different traits of malocclusion are available from a number of countries, primarily from Northern Europe and North America. Malocclusion is not a disease but rather a set of dental deviations which in some cases can influence quality of life. There is insufficient evidence that orthodontic treatment enhances dental health and function. Diagnosis and treatment of cranio-facial anomalies such as cleft lip and palate present a number of challenges to public health.
Other conditions that may lead to special health care needs include Down’s syndrome, cerebral palsy, learning and developmental disabilities, and genetic and hereditary disorders with oro-facial defects. Given the extent of the problem, oral diseases are major public health problems. Their impact on individuals and communities, as a result of pain and suffering, impairment of function and reduced quality of life, is considerable. Moreover, traditional treatment of oral disease is extremely costly, the fourth most expensive disease to treat in most industrialized countries. A core group of modifiable risk factors are common to many chronic diseases and injuries. For example, dietary habits are significant to the development of NCDs and influence the development of dental caries. The greatest burden of all diseases is on the disadvantaged and socially marginalized.
The solutions to the chronic disease problems are to be found through shared approaches. Unsightly defects and discolorations of baby teeth are a cause of concern for many parents. These defects cause aesthetic problems and predispose the affected teeth to dental caries. The two most common causes of enamel defects are: developmental insults and minor facial trauma. These problems can develop before, during, or after birth. 15 week after conception, and the process of enamel maturation is finished two months after birth. 19 weeks of intrauterine life, and complete their enamel maturation process 9 months after birth.