Views of characteristics of children of early age Foetus in the Womb detail. Early childhood is a stage in human development. It generally includes toddlerhood and some time afterwards. Play age is an unspecific designation approximately within the scope of early childhood.
In psychology the term early childhood is usually defined as the time period birth until the age of nine to twelve years, therefore covering infancy, kindergarten and the early school years up to grades 3,4,5 or 6. In this phase there is significant synaptic growth and myelination of neural fibers in the brain, especially within the frontal lobes. The growth of the brain is followed by a surge in cognitive abilities. Around the age of five, children start speaking properly and master their hand to eye coordination. It is optimal that an environment is provided that encourages physical development and allows the children to explore and try out new things. The physical development in children follows a pattern. The large muscles develop before the small muscles.
The large muscles are used for walking, running and other physical activities. These are known as gross motor skills. Small muscles are used for fine motor skills such as picking up objects, writing, drawing, throwing and catching. Called the preoperational stage by Jean Piaget, this is the stage during which the child repeatedly asks “Why? The child can’t yet perform the abstract thinking operations. This includes children understanding a sense of ‘self’, relationships with others and sociability. The emotional development includes expressions, attachment and personality.
Children manifest fear of dark and monsters and around the age of three notice whether they are a boy or a girl and start acting that way. Boys are usually more aggressive, whilst girls are more caring. Between ages 2 and 3 years, young children stop using the awkward, wide-legged robot-like stance that is the hallmark of new walkers. As they develop a smoother gait, they also develop the ability to run, jump, and hop.
Children of this age can participate in throwing and catching games with larger balls. They can also push themselves around with their feet while sitting on a riding toy. There are several developmental expectations for children to reach by the time they reach the age of 2. Children are expected to be able to draw simple shapes such as circles, squares and triangles. The development of holding the pencil starts with a supinated grip and finishes with a “dynamic tripod” grip which involves three fingers stabilizing the utensil near the tip. They should also be able to cut out such shapes as these.
Infants and toddlers experience life more holistically than any other age group Social, emotional, cognitive, language, and physical lessons are not learned separately by very young children. Adults who are most helpful to young children interact in ways that understand that the child is learning from the whole experience, not just that part of the experience to which the adult gives attention. The most information learned occurs between birth and the age of three, during this time humans develop more quickly and rapidly than they would at any other point in their life. Love, affection, encouragement and mental stimulation from the parents or guardians of these young children aid in development. According to National Association for the Education of Young Children, early childhood spans the human life from birth to age 8. Child Development And Parenting: Early Childhood Available: “Archived copy”. Early Childhood Education: Issues and Developments.
New York: Nova Sciences Publishers, Inc. Archived from the original on 2010-11-07. This page was last edited on 4 April 2018, at 10:33. Traditional early childhood education in China currently faces both internal and external challenges changing family structures and increased influence of foreign ideas and values. The one child policy in the People’s Republic of China is altering family roles and child-rearing practices, raising concerns about the possible harmful effects of too much attention and pampering. As China becomes more open to outside contact and influence, traditional teaching comes into conflict with Western ideas about “developmentally appropriate practices” and goals of creativity, autonomy and critical thinking.
Have these goals and practices, which are so prevalent in the United States today, influenced Chinese early childhood education? In 1991, I had ample opportunity to explore such questions when I spent seven months teaching in China. I drew much of my information from observations of early childhood programs in Xi’An, where I taught at Xi’An Foreign Languages University. My conclusions are consistent with what I observed and heard in interviews with teachers, parents and teacher educators throughout China. I was able, however, to arrange more informal visits through Chinese friends and travel companions. Children enter elementary school at age 6.
There are three types of early childhood program for children under 6: nurseries, kindergarten and pre-primary programs. Nurseries serve children under age 3. Small group size and many caregivers assure prompt, abundant care. Since physical care and nurturing are the primary goals, the caregivers are trained as “nurses” rather than teachers.
Programs for 2-year-olds are often combined with kindergartens. In China, the term “kindergarten” refers to full-day programs serving children from age 3 to age 6. The programs serve the twofold purpose of child care and educational preparation. A variety of sources provide kindergarten programs – the government, government-licensed private individuals and neighborhood committees, and work units. Work units are government-operated comprehensive communities in which workers and their families work and reside, such as those organized around a college or factory.
Children are generally grouped by age in kindergarten. Education replaces physical care as the primary emphasis in this program. Class size increases with age, ranging from 20 to 40 children. Each group typically has two teachers and a nurse. Large, affluent centers also often have one or more doctor on the staff to care for sick or injured children.