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For the metro station, see Metro Iztapalapa. Federal District of Mexico City’s 16 boroughs, located on the east side of the entity. The borough is named after and centered on the formerly independent municipality of Iztapalapa, which is officially called Iztapalapa de Cuitláhuac for disambiguation purposes. 8 million as of 2010, Iztapalapa is the most populous borough of Mexico City, and it is also the most populous municipality in the country. The borough transitioned from a rural area with some farms and canals as late as the 1970s, to an area with the only green areas in parks and almost all of its people employed in commerce, services and industry.
Iztapalapa today is a borough of the Federal District of Mexico City, centered on what used to be an independent settlement with its origins in the pre-Hispanic period. It has a territory of 116. The borough was created in 1928, centered on and named after a formerly independent municipality within the Federal District, which already had governing authority over a number of surrounding communities. The borough has an average elevation of 2240 masl and extends over firm land and what was former lake bed of Lake Texcoco.
The climate of the area is divided into four zones. One consists of a warm wet climate with temperatures above 18C in the coldest months. Another is a temperate wet climate with temperatures between -3 and 18C in the coldest months. One has a relatively dry climate with various temperatures, and the last consists of a cold climate with average temperature not exceeding 6. Uncontrolled population growth in the area has nearly wiped out all forms of wildlife in the borough, although as late as the 1960s, there were still a number of waterfowl to be found. Animals found here now are pets or the few cases in which families still raise domestic fowl, rabbits and others for food. Iztapalapa and most of the east side of the Federal District was historically rural and poor up until the mid-20th century.
Large-scale urbanization and industrialization began in the 1950s, along with high rates of migration into the borough in the 1970s. Today, it has high population density, limited infrastructure and high levels of socio economic marginalization. Primary problems facing the borough include crime, especially drug trafficking and sale of stolen auto parts and lack of water supply. The borough is home to a number of historic churches, many of which were built in the colonial era. The Franciscans built monasteries and churches in communities such as Huitzilopohco, San Marcos Mexicaltzingo, Santa Marta, and Nativitas Tepetlacingo.
The two most important religious establishments have been Señor de la Cuevita Sanctuary and the former monastery of Culhuacán. The Señor de la Cuevita Sanctuary is located on Avenida Morelos and 16 de Septiembre in the city of Iztapalapa. The most important monastery founded in the area in the colonial period was in Culhuacán by the Augustinians. This monastery was begun in 1552 and dedicated to John the Baptist. The Cerro de la Estrella National Park was established in 1938 and is considered to be the most important natural area in the eastern part of the Valley of Mexico. David Peña and inaugurated in 1998.
The museum is dedicated to the history of the site, especially as related by the Fuego Nuevo Codex. The Museo Cabeza de Juárez was constructed in 1976. Mexico City’s main wholesale market for produce and other foodstuffs. It was constructed to be the meeting point for producers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers for the entire country. The site accommodates more than 250,000 people each day and provides foodstuffs for most of the people of Mexico City area. The borough is also home to Mexico City and Mexico’s largest fish market, called La Nueva Viga, in Colonia San José Aculco on Prologación Eje 6 Sur. The twice-weekly El Salado tianguis or street market offers everything from the cheapest used items to luxury items can be found.