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For the similarly-named grammatical concept, see Grammatical case. This article needs additional citations for verification. The lower-case “a” and upper-case “A” are the two case variants of the first letter in the English alphabet. Letter case is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline.
Divided upper and lower type cases with cast metal sorts. The word is often spelled miniscule, by association with the unrelated word miniature and the prefix mini-. Normally, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. This section possibly contains original research. Writing systems using two separate cases are bicameral scripts. This includes most syllabic and other non-alphabetic scripts.
Capitalisation is the writing of a word with its first letter in uppercase and the remaining letters in lowercase. Capital letters are used as the first letter of a sentence, a proper noun, or a proper adjective. Other words normally start with a lower-case letter. In some traditional forms of poetry, capitalisation has conventionally been used as a marker to indicate the beginning of a line of verse independent of any grammatical feature. Other languages vary in their use of capitals. Romance and most other European languages the names of the days of the week, the names of the months, and adjectives of nationality, religion and so on normally begin with a lower-case letter.
Informal communication, such as texting, instant messaging or a handwritten sticky note, may not bother to follow the conventions concerning capitalisation, but that is because its users usually do not expect it to be formal. The German letter “ß” only used to exist in lower case. The orthographical capitalisation does not concern “ß”, which never occurs at the beginning of a word, and in the all-caps style it has traditionally been replaced by the digraph “SS”. The Greek upper-case letter “Σ” has two different lower-case forms: “ς” in word-final position and “σ” elsewhere.