Education cultural and hygienic skills in children

Please forward this error screen to 172. Crown copyright material education cultural and hygienic skills in children reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland. The complete document is presented in this single web page.

It is essential that this document should be read as a whole, since all sections are interrelated. For example, the lists of objectives must be seen in relation to the defined aims and to what is said about the principles of home economics teaching and assessment. Preface This is the fifth in HM Inspectorate’s discussion series Curriculum Matters. It sets out a framework within which schools might develop a home economics programme appropriate to their pupils. The purposes of this paper are to explore briefly the aims of teaching home economics and to set down a series of objectives for pupils of different ages. Several complementary sections on teaching and on the evaluation and assessment of pupils’ work have been included.

The aims of home economics in schools 2. The primary aim of teaching home economics in schools is to help to prepare boys and girls for some important aspects of everyday living and the adult responsibilities of family life. All pupils, whatever their social, cultural or ethnic background, require to gain competence and to make informed choices in matters of hygiene, safety, health and diet. Some principles of teaching home economics 7.

Home economics is an appropriate area of study for all pupils, both boys and girls, at all stages of schooling. Its effective teaching depends on a stated and clearly defined set of aims and objectives having regard to pupils’ past social and cultural experience, their abilities, their present stage of development and interest and their future needs. Unless specific and clear objectives are set down for each lesson, each module of study and ultimately for the conduct of home economics teaching in the school, it is difficult to measure whether or not learning has taken place. During role play activities are opportunities provided for developing sound and unprejudiced attitudes to the family and the home?

Have specific objectives been defined which relate to the aims and provide realistic guidelines for lesson planning? Please forward this error screen to 180. Typhoid fever is a substantive global health problem with wide geographic distribution and significant morbidity and mortality. Typhoid fever should not be confused with typhus, which is a vector-borne rickettsial disease covered previously at Infection Landscapes. The causative agent for enteric fever is another serovar of Salmonella enterica enterica.

The bacteria target epithelial cells and microfold cells of the small intestine in the distal ileum in close proximity to the the Peyer’s patches, which are important lymphoid tissue in the gut. Much like the other Salmonella serovars discussed previously, Salmonella Typhi employs a type III secretion system to inject proteins into the host cell, altering its cytoskeletal structure and inducing the uptake of the bacterium into the cytoplasm of the host cell. The clinical manifestation of enteric fever presents a diagnostic puzzle. Most of the symptoms are non-specific and often mimic other infections even when complicated. Indeed, the cognate, typhus, describes a very different infection, but nevertheless shares some similarities with the neurologic involvement and rash of enteric fever and thus the historical confusion between the two. Both typhoid and typhus are derived from the Greek word meaning stupor.

The first stage, when infection is symptomatic, may include malaise, dry coughing, headache, myalgia, and a fever of steadily increasing temperature. However, the other symptoms will often precede the fever. While fever is a classic symptom of enteric fever, it will not always occur in symptomatic cases, which can further complicate the diagnosis. The third stage, if it occurs, typically coincides with the 3rd week of infection.