The process of written expression places the most demands on a student’s ability to perform multiple subtests simultaneously. Generally, the writing process can be divided into two very global areas of mechanics and content. Eidetics in the development of kids more automatically a person is able to put words on paper, the easier it is to focus on ideas.
The spelling does not need to be perfectly accurate, but it does need to be close enough to correct for the student to read what he or she has written. These three categories are listed developmentally. It depends upon appropriate phonological awareness development and is a critical part of an appropriately balanced approach, supported in many state frameworks. To become skillful readers or writers, children need to learn how to decode words instantly and effortlessly. Initially, students must examine the letters and letter patterns of every new word while reading, but as they progress, the process needs to become more automatic. California State Board of Education, 1996, p. In explicit phonics the key points and principles are clarified precisely for students.
Another important aspect of effective phonics instruction is that it is systematic phonics: it gradually builds from basic elements to more subtle and complex patterns. These needs were first substantiated by Samuel T. Orton stressed prognostic optimism as early as 1925. The Gillingham Manuals made available a systematic presentation of the structure of the English language. It described methodical procedures for teaching by the simultaneous use of the sense of sight, hearing, and muscular awareness. It was also adaptable in pace and detail to the individual needs and interests of the child, and to the ingenuity of the teacher who could use it as a base of operations to which other material could be added. Building on their foundation of phonological awareness, students must understand how the alphabetical principle works, and they need to understand the concept and use of a code system.
This is especially true for dyslexics and is the rationale for the systematic approach as initially represented by Gillingham. This method also works for other learners, but it is essential for learners with special needs. The following system differs from other systems in that it utilizes a multisensory presentation combined with visual mnemonics. There is a match between auditory, visual, and kinesthetic processing when dealing with sounds and matching them to written letters. Visual pictures are also included, pulling in another whole system: visual imagery. This provides the students with hooks or links to remember a key word for each sound. The sequence presented in MFR follows the sequence presented in the Gillingham program.
There is no magical reason for this sequence, and the sequence may be varied to coordinate with any reading program. Many students learn to form associations between sounds and symbols merely through exposure, drill and practice. Dyslexic students and others who struggle with the reading process benefit substantially by receiving direct instruction and substantial practice to help them form automatic associations between visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modes. The basic principle of the language triangle is to build letter sounds into words, like bricks built into a wall.
In contrast, presenting key words in an organized approach is effective and efficient and allows students to use a variety of modalities and connections in the learning process. Thus, when reading or spelling, the student can refer to the association to trigger the needed sound. When these associations are made consistently, retrieval is much more automatic. Presenting the key words within a mnemonic sentence provides the memory tool within a contextual hook or connection.
The visual images linked to each phrase enhance retrieval and accelerate the learning. Mnemonic strategies are critical for dyslexic learners. A mnemonic is a memory trick, a strategy or plan which provides a hook to hang on to and later retrieve a memory. Key words can be explained to the students as very important helper words: they are like keys to help us learn and remember what sound goes with each letter. There are interconnections between these three sets to help facilitate the memory links. For example, in set 1 goat is the key word for the g sound. In set 2, goat is used again for the two sounds of g: George goat.