With 189 member countries, staff from more 170 countries, and offices in over 130 locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. The World Bank Group works in every major area of development. We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face. Evaluation of physical development of preschool children face big challenges to help the world’s poorest people and ensure that everyone sees benefits from economic growth.
Data and research help us understand these challenges and set priorities, share knowledge of what works, and measure progress. The World Bank supports early childhood development through financing, policy advice and more. Yet today, millions of young children are not reaching their full potential because inadequate nutrition, a lack of early stimulation, learning, and nurturing care, and exposure to stress adversely affect their development. In Africa alone, one third of children are stunted. Worldwide, only half of all three to six-year-olds have access to pre-primary education. In low income countries, just one in five children has access to preschool. One in 200 children in the world is displaced, exposing them to the kind of stress that can undermine their development.
Investments in young children are minimal: in Sub-Saharan Africa just 2 percent of the education budget goes to pre-primary education, while in Latin America government spending on children under 5 is a third of that for children 6 to 11. Smart investments in the physical, cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional development of young children —from before birth until they transition to primary school— are critical to put them on the path to greater prosperity, and to help countries be more productive and compete more successfully in a rapidly changing global economy. There is a growing body of evidence about what programs work: early childhood nutrition, early stimulation and learning programs to extend school completion, all improve learning outcomes, and ultimately increase adult wages. A 20-year study of children in Jamaica by Nobel laureate James Heckman, Paul Gertler and others showed that early stimulation interventions for infants and toddlers increased their future earnings by 25 percent—equivalent to adults who grew up in wealthier households. 12 countries found that children who attend preschool stay in school for nearly a year longer, on average, and are more likely to be employed in high-skilled jobs. Children in a long-term study in Guatemala who were not stunted were much more likely to escape poverty as adults, and earned incomes 5 to 50 percent higher than children who were stunted as children.
Targeting mothers and their babies with health and nutrition interventions during the first 1,000 days, a critical period of brain development. Increasing the frequency and quality of stimulation and opportunities for home learning to improve cognitive, socioemotional and language development. Ensuring high-quality childcare centers for young children and preschool programs for children 3 to 6 years old. The WBG leverages experts from education, nutrition, health, and social protection to build an evidence base, so that countries can craft programs that fit their needs and are also cost-effective. Impact evaluations have been critical in this effort. Knowing which preschool model is most effective or the impact of a nutrition program on cognitive development, for example, gives policymakers critical information to make better and more informed decisions.
WBG is working closely with governments across the Pacific islands to improve school readiness and early literacy. Sri Lanka: Though Sri Lanka has an estimated 17,000 early childhood development centers serving half a million children ages three to five, fewer than half meet basic national quality standards. The WBG is working with the Government to increase access to and quality of early childhood centers around the country, while providing teacher training, programs for parents, and tuition support for poor families. Niger: In Niger, where a quarter of the population is under the age of five and poverty is nearly 50 percent, access to preschool is limited. Madagascar: In Madagascar, where more than 50 percent of children are stunted, the National Community Nutrition Program is now reaching 2. Mongolia: The WBG has been working with the Government of Mongolia to build preschools, create mobile kindergartens for the country’s vast rural areas, and provide books and toys to boost kids’ learning.
5 percent of Peruvian 0-5 year old children suffered from chronic malnutrition. With support from the WBG and other donors, Peru strengthened its conditional cash transfers and the supply of health and nutrition services to target low-income families with young children. In just seven years, the country cut its chronic malnutrition rate in half, to 14 percent. The WBG also launched the Africa Early Years Fellowship, a two-year fellowship for promising young professionals who bring passion and energy to ensuring that kids get a good start in life. The 20 fellows, currently based in 14 African countries, work closely with WBG teams to support their country’s government in furthering a multi-sectoral early childhood agenda.
It also engages with UNESCO, WHO, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Institute of Medicine, bilateral donor agencies, foundations, and international non-governmental organizations, to further the early childhood development agenda. The World Bank Group, All Rights Reserved. This article is about schools for younger children between the ages of three and five. For the stage of childhood which ranges from 5-8 years old, see early childhood.
In some European countries the term “kindergarten” refers to formal education of children classified as ISCED level 0 – with one or several years of such education being compulsory – before children start primary school at ISCED level 1. May also be used to define services for children younger than kindergarten age, especially in countries where kindergarten is compulsory. The Pre-Primary program takes place in a Nursery School. Nursery School, but can also be called “a child care service” or a “crèche”. Preschool education is important and beneficial to your child attending nursery school. 4 to 5 years old- held in Nursery School and is an initiative to improve access to pre-primary schools for children in the USA.
There is much more than teaching your child colors, numbers, shapes and so on. Samuel Wilderspin, one of the founders of preschool education. 1848 engraving by John Rogers Herbert. In an age when school was restricted to children who had already learned to read and write at home, there were many attempts to make school accessible to orphans or to the children of women who worked in factories. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strassbourg an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day. In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and probably globally the first infant school in New Lanark, Scotland. Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, and went on to establish hundreds more.