The term has been controversial, and research has shown that affected people experience evaluation of the sexual development of the boy negative impact, with the terminology impacting choice and utilization of health care providers. This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.
There are several types of DSDs and their effect on the external and internal reproductive organs varies greatly. A frequently-used social and medical adjective for people with DSDs is “intersex”. Parents with DSD children and clinicians involved in DSD treatment usually try to make clear distinctions between biological sex, social gender, and sexual orientation. This results in a body that to some degree has a feminine appearance. It is caused by a shortage early in life of an enzyme that activates testosterone. In addition to CAH, CAIS, PAIS, and 5ARD there are several rarer types of DSDs, and in some cases, it is not possible to make a clear diagnosis of the underlying condition.
The Quigley scale is a method for describing genital development in AIS. In typical males, the urethra is located at the tip of the penis, while in typical females the urethra is located below the base of the clitoris. Open-minded parenting, appropriate and conservative medical intervention, and age-appropriate child involvement in the treatment plan contribute greatly to successful outcomes for the entire range of DSDs. SRY or androgen receptor abnormalities are detected. A condition that describes a female with two extra female chromosomes. It is considered a variation of Triple X syndrome.
A condition that describes a male with one extra female chromosome and one extra male chromosome. It occurs in 1 in 18,000 to 40,000 male births. A condition that describes a female with three extra female chromosomes. It is considered a variant of Triple X syndrome. 49, XXXXY – A condition that describes a male with three extra female chromosomes.
It is rare, occurring in 1 in 85,000 to 100,000 males. An autosomal recessive condition caused by a mutation of the 5-alpha reductase type 2 gene. It only affects people with Y chromosomes, namely genetic males. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency – A condition characterized by impaired androgen and estrogen synthesis in males and females, respectively. A condition which affects a genetic male’s virilization. A person with androgen insensitivity syndrome produces androgens and testosterone but their body does not recognize it, either partially or completely.
Aphallia – A rare occurrence where a male is born without a penis or where a female is born without a clitoris. As of 2005, only 75 cases of aphallia have been documented. Aposthia – A congenital defect where a male is born without a foreskin. Clitoromegaly – A clitoris that is considered larger than average.
While clitoromegaly may be a symptom of an intersex condition, it may also be considered a normal variation in clitoris size. A condition which completely affects a genetic male’s ability to recognize androgens. A condition that causes excessive androgen production, which causes excessive virilization. A condition where a male is born with two penises.