Excretory urography of the kidneys in children training

5–2,4,6-triiodo-isophthalamide, is a nonionic, water-soluble radiographic contrast medium with a molecular weight of 821. In aqueous solution each triiodinated molecule excretory urography of the kidneys in children training undissociated.

OMNIPAQUE 140, OMNIPAQUE 180, OMNIPAQUE 240, OMNIPAQUE 300, and OMNIPAQUE 350 have osmolalities from approximately 1. No significant metabolism, deiodination, or biotransformation occurs. The initial concentration and volume of the medium, in conjunction with appropriate patient manipulation and the volume of CSF into which the medium is placed, will determine the extent of the diagnostic contrast that can be achieved. Following intrathecal injection in conventional radiography, OMNIPAQUE 180, OMNIPAQUE 240, and OMNIPAQUE 300 will continue to provide good diagnostic contrast for at least 30 minutes. Slow diffusion of iohexol takes place throughout the CSF with subsequent absorption into the bloodstream. Once in the systemic circulation, iohexol displays little tendency to bind to serum or plasma proteins.

After administration into the lumbar subarachnoid space, computerized tomography shows the presence of contrast medium in the thoracic region in about 1 hour, in the cervical region in about 2 hours, and in the basal cisterns in 3 to 4 hours. In patients with renal impairment, depending on the degree of impairment, prolonged plasma iohexol levels may be anticipated due to decreased renal elimination. CONTRAINDICATIONS—Intrathecal OMNIPAQUE should not be administered to patients with a known hypersensitivity to iohexol. Myelography should not be performed in the presence of significant local or systemic infection where bacteremia is likely. Intrathecal administration of corticosteroids with OMNIPAQUE is contraindicated. If grossly bloody CSF is encountered, the possible benefits of a myelographic procedure should be considered in terms of the risk to the patient. Caution is advised in patients with a history of epilepsy, severe cardiovascular disease, chronic alcoholism, or multiple sclerosis.

Elderly patients may present a greater risk following myelography. The need for the procedure in these patients should be evaluated carefully. Special attention must be paid to dose and concentration of the medium, hydration, and technique used. Patients who are receiving anticonvulsants should be maintained on this therapy. Should a seizure occur, intravenous diazepam or phenobarbital sodium is recommended. In patients with a history of seizure activity who are not on anticonvulsant therapy, premedication with barbiturates should be considered.

Prophylactic anticonvulsant treatment with barbiturates should be considered in patients with evidence of inadvertent intracranial entry of a large or concentrated bolus of the contrast medium since there may be an increased risk of seizure in such cases. Drugs which lower the seizure threshold, especially phenothiazine derivatives, including those used for their antihistamine properties, are not recommended for use with OMNIPAQUE. Others include MAO inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, CNS stimulants, and psychoactive drugs described as analeptics, major tranquilizers, or antipsychotic drugs. Care is required in patient management to prevent inadvertent intracranial entry of a large dose or concentrated bolus of the medium.

In most reported cases of major motor seizures with nonionic myelographic media, one or more of the following factors were present. Deviations from recommended procedure or in myelographic management. Use in patients with a history of epilepsy. Intracranial entry of a bolus or premature diffusion of a high concentration of the medium. Medication with neuroleptic drugs or phenothiazine antinauseants.

Failure to maintain elevation of the head during the procedure, on the stretcher, or in bed. Excessive and particularly active patient movement or straining. PRECAUTIONS—General Diagnostic procedures which involve the use of radiopaque diagnostic agents should be carried out under the direction of personnel with the prerequisite training and with a thorough knowledge of the particular procedure to be performed. Dehydration in these patients seems to be enhanced by the osmotic diuretic action of contrast agents. Patients should be well hydrated prior to and following administration of any contrast medium, including iohexol. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that a course of action be carefully planned in advance for the immediate treatment of serious reactions, and that adequate and appropriate facilities and personnel be readily available in case of any reaction.