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This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may only interest a specific audience. Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law.
Primary degrees in law, which may be studied at either undergraduate or graduate level depending on the country. Advanced academic degrees in law, such as masters and doctoral degrees. Practice or training courses, which prospective lawyers are required to pass in some countries before they may enter practice. Applied or specialised law accreditation, which are less formal than degree programs but which provide specialised certification in particular areas. Continuing legal education, which do not lead to a qualification but provide practicing lawyers with updates on recent legal developments. Early Western legal education emerged in Republican Rome.
Initially those desiring to be advocates would train in schools of rhetoric. Around the third century BC Tiberius Coruncanius began teaching law as a separate discipline. Canon and ecclesiastical law were studied in universities in medieval Europe. However, institutions providing education in the domestic law of each country emerged later in the eighteen century. In England, legal education emerged in the late thirteenth century through apprenticeships.
The Inns of Court controlled admission to practice and also provided some legal training. English universities had taught Roman and canon law for some time, but formal degrees focused on the native common law did not emerge until the 1800s. Students may pursue such a degree only after completing an undergraduate degree, usually a bachelor’s degree. Primary degrees in law are offered by law schools, known in some countries as faculties of law.
Law schools may have varying degrees of autonomy within a particular university or, in some countries, can be entirely independent of any other post-secondary educational institution. Higher degrees allow for more advanced academic study. Practitioners may undertake a Masters of Law by coursework to obtain greater specialisation in an area in which they practice. In many common law countries, a higher degree in law is common and expected for legal academics. In addition, incorporating practical skills is beneficial for practitioners seeking higher degrees to better prepare them in their respective legal area of practice. In contrast, higher degrees in law are uncommon in the United States, even within the academy.
In some countries, including the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Canada and some states of Australia, the final stages of vocational legal education required to qualify to practice law are carried out outside the university system. Legal education providers in some countries offer courses which lead to a certificate or accreditation in applied legal practice or a particular specialisation. In some jurisdictions, it is mandatory to undertake a certain amount of continuing legal education each year. Bond University in Queensland runs three full semesters each year, teaching from mid-January to late December. They also offer a JD in two years. The University of Technology, Sydney will from 2010 offer a 2-year accelerated JD program. Common Professional Examination conversion course for non-law graduates.
The move to a four-year LLB was recent and, in the case of HKU, was aimed at shifting some of the more theoretical aspects of the HKU PCLL into the LLB, leaving more room for practical instruction. The Bar Council of India prescribes and supervises standard of legal education in India. In India law can be studied, as LL. Alternatively after standard 12 one can join an integrated five-year law course which provides option to avail B. Law in Italy and France is studied in a jurisprudence school which is an entity within a larger university.
Legal education can be started immediately after obtained a Diploma. Italian and French law schools are affiliated with public universities, and are thus public institutions. As a consequence, law schools are required to admit anyone holding the baccalaureate. IP law, contract law, civil liberties, etc. Successful students also take the Oath in order to practice law. Private law schools opened around 1880.