Young child playing in squatting position. Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. There are various definitions forms of physical activity of children of early age periods in a child’s development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending. Promoting child development through parental training, among other factors, promotes excellent rates of child development.
Parents play a large role in a child’s life, socialization, and development. Having multiple parents can add stability to the child’s life and therefore encourage healthy development. The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. There are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child development.
Also called “development in context” or “human ecology” theory, ecological systems theory, originally formulated by Urie Bronfenbrenner specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems. The four systems are microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. Each system contains roles, norms and rules that can powerfully shape development. Jean Piaget was a Swiss scholar who began his studies in intellectual development in the 1920s.
Piaget’s first interests were those that dealt with the ways in which animals adapt to their environments and his first scientific article about this subject was published when he was 10 years old. This eventually led him to pursue a Ph. Zoology, which then led him to his second interest in epistemology. This is the first stage in Piaget’s theory, where infants have the following basic senses: vision, hearing, and motor skills.
In this stage, knowledge of the world is limited but is constantly developing due to the child’s experiences and interactions. During this stage of development, young children begin analyzing their environment using mental symbols. These symbols often include words and images and the child will begin to apply these various symbols in their everyday lives as they come across different objects, events, and situations. During this stage, children between the age of 7 and 11 use appropriate logic to develop cognitive operations and begin applying this new thinking to different events they may encounter. Children in this stage incorporate inductive reasoning, which involves drawing conclusions from other observations in order to make a generalization. Some positive aspects during this time is that child or adolescent begins forming their identity and begin understanding why people behave the way they behave. Vygotsky was a Russian theorist, who proposed the sociocultural theory.