For parental care in animals, see Parental investment. The English pediatrician and psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott described the concept of “good-four parenting skills” parenting in which a minimum of prerequisites for healthy child development are met.
Social class, wealth, culture and income have a very strong impact on what methods of child rearing are used by parents. Cultural values play a major role in how a parent raises their child. In psychology, the parental investment theory suggests that basic differences between males and females in parental investment have great adaptive significance and lead to gender differences in mating propensities and preferences. A family’s social class plays a large role in the opportunities and resources that will be made available to a child. Working-class children often grow up at a disadvantage with the schooling, communities, and parental attention made available to them compared to middle-class or upper-class upbringings. A parenting style is the overall emotional climate in the home. Authoritative parenting Described by Baumrind as the “just right” style, it combines a medium level demands on the child and a medium level responsiveness from the parents.
Authoritative parents rely on positive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment. Parents are more aware of a child’s feelings and capabilities and support the development of a child’s autonomy within reasonable limits. A parenting practice is a specific behavior that a parent uses in raising a child. For example, a common parent practice intended to promote academic success is reading books to the child. Storytelling is an important parenting practice for children in many Indigenous American communities. Parenting practices reflect the cultural understanding of children. Parents in individualistic countries like Germany spend more time engaged in face-to-face interaction with babies and more time talking to the baby about the baby.
In Kenya, Africa, many male parents are not encouraged to be involved in their children’s lives till they are about 12 years old. Parenting skills are the guiding forces of a “good parent” to lead a child into a healthy adult, they influence on development, maintenance, and cessation of children’s negative and positive behaviors. Parenting takes a lot of skill and patience and is constant work and growth. The cognitive potential, social skills, and behavioral functioning a child acquires during the early years are fundamentally dependent on the quality of their interactions with their parents.
Play that enhances socialization, autonomy, cohesion, calmness and trust. Keep open communication and stay educated on what their child is seeing, learning and doing and how it is affecting them. Parenting skills are often assumed to be self-evident or naturally present in parents. Parent-child relationship skills: quality time spend, positive communications and delighting affection.
Encouraging desirable behavior: praise and encouragement, nonverbal attention, facilitating engaging activities. Anticipating and planning: advanced planning and preparation for readying the child for challenges, finding out engaging and age appropriate developmental activities, preparing token economy for self-management practice with guidance, holding follow-up discussions, identifying possible negative developmental trajectories. Parents around the world want what they believe is best for their children. However, parents in different cultures have different ideas of what is best. Differences in values cause parents to interpret different actions in different ways. Asking questions is seen by many European American parents as a sign that the child is smart. Italian parents, who value social and emotional competence, believe that asking questions is a sign that the child has good interpersonal skills.
Differences in values can also cause parents to employ different tools to promote their values. Many European American parents expect specially purchased educational toys to improve their children’s intelligence. Some Spanish parents promote social skills by taking their children out for daily walks around the neighborhood. Storytelling is a way for Indigenous American children to learn about their identity, community, and cultural history.