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2 Contents: I Introduction: a holistic approach to soft security problems 3 II The severity of Russian soft security problems for the outside world 3 Nuclear safety waiting for a catastrophe? 4 Environmental problems: from individual risks to potential catastrophes 9 Infectious diseases: a creeping crisis? 11 Illegal immigration: still under control? Ten years after the end of the Cold War, the traditional security dilemma based on the perception of a military threat general physical training for children Pskov Russia and the West has largely given way to a variety of new challenges related to non-military security, so-called soft security threats.

These threats are not merely problems internal to Russia, but constitute existing or potential problems for other countries as well. 4 Community risks exist when a whole neighbourhood is at risk of being affected, for instance, by a specific environmental or a health problem. International dimensions of these risks are still indirect in terms of their immediate effects, but they may raise the question of the need for preventive or more proactive policies and aid programmes from agents outside Russia. 5 Within the complex of problems in this field, two main sets of sources of serious risks can be identified: malfunctions in the operation of the nuclear reactors of the power plants, and nuclear waste problems, the latter both of civilian and military nature. Starting with the first set of risks, there are nine operational nuclear plants in Russia with a total of 29 reactors. 6 cooling system at the heart of the plant stopped working, and the temperature in the core reactor rose to dangerous level, before the staff managed to start the generators after about half an hour. The versions of the severity of the above discussed situation vary, however.

7 Novaya Zemlya and in the Kara Sea, which began in 1964 and continued until At least 17,000 barrels of solid radioactive waste were sunk in the waters around Novaya Zemlya. Thirteen nuclear reactors from submarines were buried in the Kara Sea and in Novaya Zemlya s coastal fjords. In addition, between 11,000 and 17,000 containers with radioactive waste content, estimated at more that 60,000 curies, were dumped in the area. 8 solid and liquid radioactive waste in concrete bunkers. The criticism notes that the concrete is very poor and that there are cracks and a constant danger of leakage into a sea in which fish are caught. Another well-known example of a serious individual hot-spot is the service ship Lepse in Murmansk.