Please forward this error screen to 85. Gender nonconformity in children can have many forms, reflecting various ways in which a child relates to their gender. In literature, gender variance and gender atypicality are general regularities of development of children of preschool age synonymously with gender nonconformity. The concept of childhood gender nonconformity assumes that there is a correct way to be a girl or a boy.
There are a number of social and developmental perspectives that explore how children come to identify with a particular gender and engage in activities that are associated with this gender role. Psychoanalytic theories of gender emphasize that children begin to identify with the parent, and that girls tend to identify with their mothers and boys with their fathers. The identification is often associated with the child’s realization that they do not share the same genitals with both parents. Social learning theory emphasizes the rewards and punishments that children receive for sex appropriate or inappropriate behaviors.
One of the criticisms of social learning theory is that it assumes that children are passive, rather than active participants in their social environment. Cognitive development theory argues that children are active in defining gender and behaving in ways that reflect their perceptions of gender roles. Gender schema theory is a hybrid model that combines social learning and cognitive development theories. Bem argues that children have a cognitive readiness to learn about themselves and their surroundings. Studies with young rhesus macaques suggest that some gender-typical preferences may not only be caused by human socialization. Toys for girls tend to be round and pink, while toys for boy tend to be angular and blue.
The subtle characteristics of toys may differentially appeal to the developing brains of female and male children. In a study of toy preferences of twelve- to 24-month-old infants, males spent more time looking at cars than females and females spent more time looking at dolls than males. In studies of toy preference, these girls show increased interest in male-typical toys, like trucks and balls. Overall, their play habits and preferences more closely resembled male-typical play than female-typical play. Overall, the degree of androgen exposure during prenatal and postnatal development may bias males and females toward specific cognitive processes, which are further reinforced through processes of socialization. The male interest in balls and wheeled toys may relate to the androgenised brains preference for objects that move through space.
Cordelia Fine criticizes toy-preference studies in non-human primates. She explains the disparity across research and the labeling of toys, with the rhesus monkey study deeming stuffed animals as inherently feminine, all the while a study with vervet monkeys shows males displaying a preference for stuffed dogs. CAH interested in typically masculine activities due to their having an innate quality or is this a result of their association with boys and men as a gender? Children’s preference for same-sex play mates is a robust finding that has been observed in many human cultures and across a number of animal species.
Preference for same-sex playmates is at least partially linked to socialization processes, but children may also gravitate toward peers with similar play styles. However, it is not uncommon for girls and boys to prefer opposite-sex playmates and to engage in gender atypical play styles. Similarly to toy preferences, androgens may also be involved in playmate and play style preferences. CGN and personality traits in adulthood has been largely overlooked. One of the advantages of Lippa’s study is the relatively high sample size of 950 participants, that was diverse both in terms of representations of sexual orientation and ethnicity.
CGN is associated with higher levels of psychological distress in gay men than in lesbian women. The findings were extended to heterosexual men and women, where “CGN associated with psychological distress in heterosexual men but not in heterosexual women. In effect, “CGN impacts men more negatively than women, regardless of sexual orientation. A great deal of research has been conducted on the relationship between CGN and sexual orientation. Gay men often report being feminine boys, and lesbian women often report being masculine girls. In men, CGN is a strong predictor of sexual orientation in adulthood, but this relationship is not as well understood in women. Research has shown that the mother develops an immune response due to blood factor incompatibility with male fetuses.