The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a individualization of education for children of preschool age view of the subject. Schools most frequently use the inclusion model for selected students with mild to moderate special needs.
Inclusive education differs from the ‘integration’ or ‘mainstreaming’ model of education, which tended to be concerned principally with disability and special educational needs, and learners changing or becoming ‘ready for’ or deserving of accommodation by the mainstream. By contrast, inclusion is about the child’s right to participate and the school’s duty to accept the child. A premium is placed upon full participation by students with disabilities and upon respect for their social, civil, and educational rights. Feeling included is not limited to physical and cognitive disabilities, but also includes the full range of human diversity with respect to ability, language, culture, gender, age and of other forms of human differences. By contrast, inclusion is about the child’s right to participate and the school’s duty to accept the child returning to the US Supreme Court’s Brown vs. US and other parts of the world. Classification of students by disability is standard in educational systems which use diagnostic, educational and psychological testing, among others.
Inclusion has two sub-types: the first is sometimes called regular inclusion or partial inclusion, and the other is full inclusion. Inclusive practice is not always inclusive but is a form of integration. For example, students with special needs are educated in regular classes for nearly all of the day, or at least for more than half of the day. Whenever possible, the students receive any additional help or special instruction in the general classroom, and the student is treated like a full member of the class.
In the “full inclusion” setting, the students with special needs are always educated alongside students without special needs, as the first and desired option while maintaining appropriate supports and services. Some educators say this might be more effective for the students with special needs. Much more commonly, local educational agencies have the responsibility to organize services for children with disabilities. They may provide a variety of settings, from special classrooms to mainstreaming to inclusion, and assign, as teachers and administrators often do, students to the system that seems most likely to help the student achieve his or her individual educational goals. Students with disabilities who are not included are typically either mainstreamed or segregated. A mainstreamed student attends some general education classes, typically for less than half the day, and often for less academically rigorous, or if you will, more interesting and career-oriented classes. A segregated student attends no classes with non-disabled students with disability a tested category determined before or at school entrance.