This article’s lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. It has been suggested that this article be merged into language education. Language pedagogy may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language japanese methods of teaching children, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.
The functional view sees language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain function, such as requesting something. The interactive view sees language as a vehicle for the creation and maintenance of social relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in conversational exchanges. This view has been fairly dominant since the 1980s. In the late 1800s and most of the 1900s, language teaching was usually conceived in terms of method. In seeking to improve teaching practices, teachers and researchers would typically try to find out which method was the most effective.
In 1963, University of Michigan Linguistics Professor Edward Mason Anthony Jr. According to Anthony, “The arrangement is hierarchical. A method is a plan for presenting the language material to be learned and should be based upon a selected approach. Anthony’s framework was welcomed by the language teaching community when it was introduced, and it was seen as a useful way of classifying different teaching practices. Despite Richards and Rogers’ efforts to clearly define approach, design, and procedure, their framework has been criticized by Kumaravadivelu for having “an element of artificiality in its conception and an element of subjectivity in its operation”. The grammar translation method instructs students in grammar, and provides vocabulary with direct translations to memorize. It was the predominant method in Europe in the 19th century.
Most instructors now acknowledge that this method is ineffective by itself. At school, the teaching of grammar consists of a process of training in the rules of a language which must make it possible for all the students to correctly express their opinion, to understand the remarks which are addressed to them and to analyze the texts which they read. The audio-lingual method was developed in the United States around World War II when governments realized that they needed more people who could conduct conversations fluently in a variety of languages, work as interpreters, code-room assistants, and translators. Army Specialized Training Program only lasted a few years, but it gained a lot of attention from the popular press and the academic community.