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If you continue to see this page, please have your district contact us. Please forward this error screen to 173. Long title An act to close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind. Signed into law by President George W. Bush signing the No Child Left Behind Act. The act did not assert a national achievement standard—each state developed its own standards.
NCLB expanded the federal role in public education through further emphasis on annual testing, annual academic progress, report cards, and teacher qualifications, as well as significant changes in funding. The bill passed in the Congress with bipartisan support. By 2015, criticism from right, left, and center had accumulated so much that a bipartisan Congress stripped away the national features of No Child Left Behind. The legislation was proposed by President George W. No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer a statewide standardized test annually to all students. If the school’s results are repeatedly poor, then steps are taken to improve the school. Schools that miss AYP for a second consecutive year are publicly labeled as “In Need of Improvement,” and must develop a two-year improvement plan for the subject that the school is not teaching well.
Students have the option to transfer to a better school within the school district, if any exists. Missing AYP in the third year forces the school to offer free tutoring and other supplemental education services to students who are struggling. If a school misses its AYP target for a fourth consecutive year, the school is labelled as requiring “corrective action,” which might involve wholesale replacement of staff, introduction of a new curriculum, or extending the amount of time students spend in class. AYP targets for the sixth consecutive year.
Common options include closing the school, turning the school into a charter school, hiring a private company to run the school, or asking the state office of education to run the school directly. States must develop AYP statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students and for specific groups: economically disadvantaged students, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. AYP must be primarily based on state assessments, but must also include one additional academic indicator. The AYP objectives must be assessed at the school level. Schools that failed to meet their AYP objective for two consecutive years are identified for improvement.
School AYP results must be reported separately for each group of students identified above so that it can be determined whether each student group met the AYP objective. States may aggregate up to three years of data in making AYP determinations. The act requires states to provide “highly qualified” teachers to all students. Each state sets its own standards for what counts as “highly qualified. Similarly, the act requires states to set “one high, challenging standard” for its students. The act also requires schools to let military recruiters have students’ contact information and other access to the student, if the school provides that information to universities or employers, unless the students opt out of giving military recruiters access.
This portion of the law has drawn lots of criticism and has even led to political resistance. Supporters of the NCLB claim one of the strong positive points of the bill is the increased accountability that is required of schools and teachers. According to the legislation, schools must pass yearly tests that judge student improvement over the fiscal year. These yearly standardized tests are the main means of determining whether schools live up to required standards.
The commonwealth of Pennsylvania has proposed tying teacher’s salaries to test scores. If a district’s students do poorly, the state cuts the district’s budget the following year and the teachers get a pay cut. Critics point out that if a school does poorly, reducing its budget and cutting teacher salaries will likely hamper the school’s ability to improve. Gives options to students enrolled in schools failing to meet AYP.
If a school fails to meet AYP targets two or more years running, the school must offer eligible children the chance to transfer to higher-performing local schools, receive free tutoring, or attend after-school programs. Gives school districts the opportunity to demonstrate proficiency, even for subgroups that do not meet State Minimum Achievement standards, through a process called “safe harbor,” a precursor to growth-based or value-added assessments. The act requires schools to rely on scientifically based research for programs and teaching methods. The act defines this as “research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs. Prior to the NCLB act, new teachers were typically required to have a bachelor’s degree, be fully certified, and demonstrate subject matter knowledge—generally through tests.