The tragic consequences of malnutrition include death, disability, stunted mental and physical growth, and as a result, retarded national socioeconomic development. Given the rapidity with which traditional diets and lifestyles are changing in many developing countries, it is not surprising that food insecurity and undernutrition persist in the same countries where chronic diseases are emerging as a major epidemic. In the past, undernutrition and chronic diseases were seen as two totally separate problems, language development children with mental retardation being present simultaneously.
This dichotomy has obstructed effective action to curb the advancing epidemic of chronic diseases. Eliminating these causes requires political and social action of which nutritional programmes can be only one aspect. Sufficient, safe and varied food supplies not only prevent malnutrition but also reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The double burden of disease is most effectively lifted by a range of integrated policies and programmes. Such an integrated approach is the key to action in countries where modest public health budgets will inevitably remain mostly devoted to prevention of deficiency and infection. Indeed, there is no country, however privileged, in which combating deficiency and infection are no longer public health priorities. People with mental retardation in the U.
5 million, have historically been victimized both by their disability and by public prejudice and ignorance. Mental retardation is a lifelong condition of impaired or incomplete mental development. The vast majority of people in the United States have I. 80 and 120, with an I. To be diagnosed as having mental retardation, a person must have an I. Although all persons with mental retardation have significantly impaired mental development, their intellectual level can vary considerably. An estimated 89 percent of all people with retardation have I.
60 to 70 range is approximately the scholastic equivalent to the third grade. For the lay person or non-specialist, the significance of a low I. When a person is said to have a mental age of six, this means he or she received the same number of correct responses on a standardized I. Earl Washington, who confessed to a murder he did not commit, has an I.
69 and a mental age of ten. That is, he cannot perform intellectual tasks beyond the capacity of a typical ten-year-old. Jerome Holloway, who death sentence was ultimately reduced in the face of overwhelming evidence that he had been unable to comprehend the proceedings against him, has an I. 49 and a mental age of seven.
Luis Mata, executed in 1996, had an I. According to a psychologist who evaluated Mata, “his ability to express himself and his ability to recognize the meaning of common words were at the level of a nine- to ten-year-old child. He lacked basic understanding of familiar processes. In 1959, the American Association on Mental Deficiency set 85 as the I. Mental retardation entails significant limitations in two or more of the basic skill areas necessary to cope with the requirements of everyday life, e.
Offenders with mental retardation who have been convicted of committing capital crimes typically grew up poor and without networks of special support and services — often without even a supportive, loving family. They functioned as best they could without professional assistance, often required to fend for themselves while still teenagers. If they were able to work, it was at basic menial tasks. Billy Dwayne White, executed in Texas in 1992, had an I. After being hired as a kitchen dishwasher he was fired when he could not learn to operate the dishwasher. Family members reported that “if one told Billy exactly what to do and took him to the place where it was to be done could do some work. If he were left on his own and not specifically guided, he could not do it.