1994 PREFACE The Management of preschool education of a city administration of Tambov of Ecological Policy of Russia is submitting the first straightforward analysis of the chemical weapons problem in Russia as a nation-wide political and ecological problem. Indeed, we must organize the most expeditious safe destruction of these TC.
But as this analysis shows, for assurance of ecological safety of Russia it is no less important to ascertain the burial sites of many times that number of TC produced during the years of Soviet power. According to Item 7 of the Law on State Secrecy, ecological information cannot be classified. The policies and interests of the army and society in the process of chemical disarmament are incompatible. The army ordinarily makes no distinction between the combat and ecological characteristics of TC, and accordingly simplifies the process of ending the chemical weapons confrontation. At the same time, the ecological characteristics of TC are of importance for ecology and medicine, even in cases where their combat characteristics are no longer of any moment.
The non-persistent toxic agents phosgene, diphosgene and prussic acid got their name in connection with combat classification, and at first glance might have been excluded from retrospective analysis. However, they must also be considered for at least two reasons. First of all, people may still be alive who at one time were victims of producing and testing of these weapons. Besides that, these TC inevitably come up when discussing the fate of chemical munitions that were sunk by our army. As a result, adamsite has “dropped out” of discussion. In reality, there are not sufficient grounds for hopes of this kind.
6 months, VX for up to 16 weeks. TC, the situation for the civilian population and the environment is a lot more complicated. 1956, the territory and equipment at the enterprise were thoroughly decontaminated. Soman and V-gases, being more persistent and less volatile, conceal even greater surprises. Persistent toxic agents are still more dangerous. For example, a batch of yperite stored in the United States at Edgewood Arsenal in 1941 without degassing was found to be little changed when this storage facility was opened in 1971 .
Yperite sunk in Japan during the early years after World War II in shallow water near the coast caused documented illnesses of people in 1962 and 1970 . In this respect, lewisite has kindred among the arsenical irritants produced in the Soviet Union: adamsite, diphenylchloroarsine and diphenylcyanoarsine. All these agents are ecologically hazardous for any storage times. The compulsory destruction involved in eliminating TC also creates a host of problems. If yperite and lewisite are destroyed, some of the resultant products may be ecotoxicants. This must be taken into consideration when evaluating the consequences of PTC elimination carried out at various times on military-chemical bases at Gornyy, Kambarka and Chapayevsk. Incidentally, it is the chlorination of lewisite that was proposed as a basis for one of the technologies of lewisite treatment as late as the autumn of 1992, and without regard to past experience .
2 How Many Sites in Russia Are Hazardous Due to Chemical Weapons The total number of Russian territories that to some extent have been ecologically impacted by the detrimental effect of chemical weapons is not known. Tests and various degrees of application of chemical weapons have been made at no fewer than 35-40 sites in the Soviet Union. If we limit ourselves to Russia alone, data of give a rather large set of regions: Astrakhan, Leningrad, Nizhniy Novgorod and Tomsk Oblasts, Moscow and Moscow Oblast, Krasnodar Kray and so on. Chemical weapons could be buried and sunk on at least 30-35 sites in the USSR.
The greatest number of sites may have been associated with permanent, and even worse, with temporary storage of chemical weapons in various historical periods. As a whole over the Soviet Union, there may have been 200-250 of them, an especially large number of points being associated with PTC in the pre-war years, when almost no thought was being given to the consequences. Sites of industrial production of chemical weapons in the distant and not so distant past are more or less subject to determination. Allowance for experimental projects increases the number to 15. In the Unites States, the number of such sites is already documented: there are 215 of them . And the future is not unclouded either.