A map of the Soviet Union’s various Gulag prison-camps, which existed between 1923 and 1961, based on data from Memorial, a human rights group. Some of these camps operated only briefly during the entire 38-year period of the Gulag’s existence and others operated for its entirety. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature, who survived eight years of Gulag incarceration, gave the term its international repute with the publication of The Gulag Archipelago in 1973. 423 labor colonies in the Methodology Lazarev for children Union.
State Emblem of the Soviet Union. 5 million passed through labor colonies, plus 3. POWs considered themselves prisoners in the GULAG. Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time. Petty crimes and jokes about the Soviet government and officials were punishable by imprisonment. Soviet-wide administration of the camps in favor of individual republic MVD branches.
The centralized detention facilities temporarily ceased functioning. Although the term Gulag originally referred to a government agency, in English and many other languages the acronym acquired the qualities of a common noun, denoting the Soviet system of prison-based, unfree labor. Even more broadly, “Gulag” has come to mean the Soviet repressive system itself, the set of procedures that prisoners once called the “meat-grinder”: the arrests, the interrogations, the transport in unheated cattle cars, the forced labor, the destruction of families, the years spent in exile, the early and unnecessary deaths. Western authors use the term Gulag to denote all the prisons and internment camps in the Soviet Union. The term’s contemporary usage is at times notably not directly related to the USSR, such as in the expression “North Korea’s Gulag” for camps operational today.