Please forward this error screen to 109. Please forward this error screen to 64. American sociologist and methodology of development of speech of children belongs son of Thomas M. Charles Horton Cooley was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on August 17, 1864, to Mary Elizabeth Horton and Thomas M.
Thomas Cooley was the Supreme Court Judge for the state of Michigan, and he was one of the first three faculty members to start the University of Michigan Law School. At the age of sixteen Cooley started attending the University of Michigan. Cooley suffered from “obstetative elimination” which is an illness that affects the mental and physical health of individuals. His illness negatively affected his college life since it caused him to take breaks from studying.
Since Cooley’s father was honored nationwide, Cooley feared the idea of failure. He did not know where he belonged in life and did not know what he wanted to do with his life. He questioned if he wanted to study science, mathematics, social science, psychology or sociology. Cooley decided that he wanted to study sociology because it gave him the ability to think and analyze social problems. He began teaching sociology in the academic year of 1894 to 1895.
He also had a very prominent role in the development of symbolic interactionism, in which he worked heavily with another fellow staff member from the University of Michigan, psychologist John Dewey. Cooley married Elsie Jones in 1890, who was the daughter of a professor of medicine at the University of Michigan. Cooley differed from her husband in that she was outgoing, energetic, and hence capable of ordering their common lives in such a manner that mundane cares were not to weigh very heavily on her husband. The couple had three children, a boy and two girls, and lived quietly and fairly withdrawn in a house close to the campus. Cooley is noted for his displeasure at the divisions within the sociological community over methodology.
He preferred an empirical, observational approach. While he appreciated the use of statistics, he preferred case studies: often using his own children as the subjects on his observation. In his thesis he discussed the growth and expansion during the nineteenth century. This book was notable for its conclusion that towns and cities tend to be located at the confluence of transportation routes—the so-called break in transportation. In the “Social Organization” Cooley asks what makes up a society. He focuses on the relationship between the individual to the larger unity of the society.
He viewed society and the individual as one since they cannot exist without one another. Where the society has a strong impact on the individual behavior and vice versa. He also concluded that the more industrialized a society becomes, the more individualistic it becomes. Social Process was more of an essay based work that expressed Cooley’s social theories. It was more philosophical than sociological. Cooley’s theories were manifested in response to a threefold necessity that had developed within the realm of society.
The first of which was the necessity to create an understanding of societal phenomena that highlighted the subjective mental processes of individuals yet realized that these subjective processes were effects and causes of society’s processes. In regards to these, aforementioned, dilemmas Cooley responded by stating “society and individual denote not separable phenomena but different aspects of the same thing, for a separate individual is an abstraction unknown to experience, and so likewise is society when regarded as something apart from individuals. The Looking-glass self is created through the imagination of how one’s self might be understood by another individual. This would later be termed “Empathic Introspection. This theory applied not only to the individual but to the macro-level economic issues of society and to those macro-sociological conditions which are created over time.
To the economy, Cooley presented a divergent view from the norm, stating that “even economic institutions could be understood solely as a result of impersonal market forces. With regard to the sociological perspective and its relevancy toward traditions he states that the dissolution of traditions may be positive, thus creating “the sort of virtues, as well as of vices, that we find on the frontier: plain dealing, love of character and force, kindness, hope, hospitality and courage. The concept of the “looking glass self” is undoubtedly his most famous, and is known and accepted by most psychologists and sociologists today. It expanded William James’s idea of self to include the capacity of reflection on its own behavior. You imagine how you appear to the other person. You imagine the judgment of the other person.
You feel some sense of pride, happiness, guilt, or shame. In line with William James’s thoughts, the concept of the looking glass self contributed to an increasing abandonment of the so-called Cartesian disjunction between mind and the external social world. Cooley sought to break down the barrier Cartesian thought had erected between the individual and its social context. Charles Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order, p. 1907: Social Consciousness, American Journal of Sociology 12, 675-687 Previously published as above. 1913: The Institutional Character of Pecuniary Valuation, American Journal of Sociology 18, 543-555.