Methods of diagnostic examination of children

Corresponding author: Hasan Karami, Department methods of diagnostic examination of children Pediatric Gastroenterology, Bouali Sina Hospital, Pasdaran bulevard, Sari, Mazandaran Province, IR Iran. To Cite: Karami H, Kianifar H R, Karami S. Cholelithiasis in Children: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach, J Pediatr Rev. The prevalence of cholelithiasis in children has been reported to be 0.

Results: A total of 36 out of 93 articles were reviewed. The results showed that the prevalence of childhood cholelithiasis varies in different communities, with a global rate of 1. Most cases of cholelithiasis in children were associated with underlying diseases. Hemolytic diseases, hereditary blood disorders, and cirrhosis were among the main causes of cholelithiasis in children. Cholelithiasis is sometimes diagnosed in patients incidentally or as silent stones.

Evaluation of the causes of cholelithiasis and utilization of a proper therapeutic method are among the challenges of cholelithiasis management in children. Epidemiological studies have indicated the involvement of genetic factors in the formation of cholelithiasis. The effect of a gene on incontinentia pigmenti chromosome has been confirmed in the formation of cholelithiasis. The first report of cholelithiasis in children was presented by Gibson in 1737.

The prevalence of cholelithiasis in children is variable, with a global rate of 1. Hemolytic causes appear mostly in one- to five-year-old children. When the bile includes higher levels of cholesterol and bilirubin, along with lower levels of bile salts, cholesterol stones are formed. These stones are mostly reported in cases with hemolytic disease, cirrhosis, bile tract infection, and hereditary blood disorders, such as spherocytosis and sickle cell anemia. Bile is more diluted in infants than older children. Lower concentrations of bile salts, short period of core formation, and higher levels of cholesterol saturation may predispose infants to bile deposition and gallbladder sludge. In most cases, cholelithiasis is asymptomatic in children and is incidentally diagnosed in abdominal sonography assessments.