This article is about methods of management independent work children search for knowledge. For Wikipedia’s policy against directly including in articles the results of editor-conducted research, see Wikipedia:No original research. Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D. Research comprises “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
Research has been defined in a number of different ways. A broad definition of research is given by Godwin Colibao: “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information, and facts for the advancement of knowledge. Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “esearch is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. Original research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary source character.
Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and usually established by means of peer review. Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic.
Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth. Primary scientific research being carried out at the Microscopy Laboratory of the Idaho National Laboratory. Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Observations and formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of one’s interest and following that subject area to conduct subject related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow.
Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables. Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts. Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection must be valid and reliable. Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data to draw conclusions about it. Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures, and pictures, and then described in words. Generally, a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment.
A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case, a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.
There are various history guidelines that are commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines. One of the characteristics of artistic research is that it must accept subjectivity as opposed to the classical scientific methods. Stockholm in the following manner – “Artistic research is to investigate and test with the purpose of gaining knowledge within and for our artistic disciplines. It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. According to artist Hakan Topal, in artistic research, “perhaps more so than other disciplines, intuition is utilized as a method to identify a wide range of new and unexpected productive modalities”.