Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their methods of teaching children speech learning environment, and to focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language.
According to CLT, the goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language. This is in contrast to previous views in which grammatical competence was commonly given top priority. Language teaching was originally considered a cognitive matter, mainly involving memorization. It was later thought, instead, to be socio-cognitive, meaning that language can be learned through the process of social interaction. It was Noam Chomsky’s theories in the 1960s, focusing on competence and performance in language learning, that gave rise to communicative language teaching, but the conceptual basis for CLT was laid in the 1970s by linguists Michael Halliday, who studied how language functions are expressed through grammar, and Dell Hymes, who introduced the idea of a wider communicative competence instead of Chomsky’s narrower linguistic competence.
This increased demand included many learners who struggled with traditional methods such as grammar translation, which involves the direct translation of sentence after sentence as a way to learn language. These methods assumed that students were aiming for mastery of the target language, and that students were willing to study for years before expecting to use the language in real life. Additionally, the trend of progressivism in education provided further pressure for educators to change their methods. The development of communicative language teaching was bolstered by new academic ideas.
Before the growth of communicative language teaching, the primary method of language teaching was situational language teaching. This method was much more clinical in nature and relied less on direct communication. In Britain, applied linguists began to doubt the efficacy of situational language teaching. This was partly in response to Chomsky’s insights into the nature of language.