Click to make the text bigger. Language teaching methodologies Listed below are brief summaries of some of the more popular second language teaching methods of the last half century. For a more detailed analysis methods of teaching English to children the different methods, see Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Richards, J.
The Direct Method In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation. Grammar-translation Learning is largely by translation to and from the target language.
Grammar rules are to be memorized and long lists of vocabulary learned by heart. There is little or no emphasis placed on developing oral ability. Audio-lingual The theory behind this method is that learning a language means acquiring habits. There is much practice of dialogues of every situations.
New language is first heard and extensively drilled before being seen in its written form. This method sees language as a complex of grammatical rules which are to be learned one at a time in a set order. So for example the verb “to be” is introduced and practised before the present continuous tense which uses “to be” as an auxiliary. Suggestopedia The theory underlying this method is that a language can be acquired only when the learner is receptive and has no mental blocks. By various methods it is suggested to the student that the language is easy – and in this way the mental blocks to learning are removed. TPR works by having the learner respond to simple commands such as “Stand up”, “Close your book”, “Go to the window and open it. The method stresses the importance of aural comprehension.
The focus of this method is to enable the learner to communicate effectively and appropriately in the various situations she would be likely to find herself in. The content of CLT courses are functions such as inviting, suggesting, complaining or notions such as the expression of time, quantity, location. The Silent Way This is so called because the aim of the teacher is to say as little as possible in order that the learner can be in control of what he wants to say. No use is made of the mother tongue. Community Language Learning In this method attempts are made to build strong personal links between the teacher and student so that there are no blocks to learning. There is much talk in the mother tongue which is translated by the teacher for repetition by the student. This corresponds to a great extent to the situation we have at our school.