This article’s lead methods of teaching speech in young children may not adequately summarize its contents. It has been suggested that this article be merged into language education.
Language pedagogy may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages. The functional view sees language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain function, such as requesting something. The interactive view sees language as a vehicle for the creation and maintenance of social relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in conversational exchanges. This view has been fairly dominant since the 1980s. In the late 1800s and most of the 1900s, language teaching was usually conceived in terms of method. In seeking to improve teaching practices, teachers and researchers would typically try to find out which method was the most effective.
In 1963, University of Michigan Linguistics Professor Edward Mason Anthony Jr. According to Anthony, “The arrangement is hierarchical. A method is a plan for presenting the language material to be learned and should be based upon a selected approach. Anthony’s framework was welcomed by the language teaching community when it was introduced, and it was seen as a useful way of classifying different teaching practices. Despite Richards and Rogers’ efforts to clearly define approach, design, and procedure, their framework has been criticized by Kumaravadivelu for having “an element of artificiality in its conception and an element of subjectivity in its operation”. The grammar translation method instructs students in grammar, and provides vocabulary with direct translations to memorize. It was the predominant method in Europe in the 19th century.
Most instructors now acknowledge that this method is ineffective by itself. At school, the teaching of grammar consists of a process of training in the rules of a language which must make it possible for all the students to correctly express their opinion, to understand the remarks which are addressed to them and to analyze the texts which they read. The audio-lingual method was developed in the United States around World War II when governments realized that they needed more people who could conduct conversations fluently in a variety of languages, work as interpreters, code-room assistants, and translators. Army Specialized Training Program only lasted a few years, but it gained a lot of attention from the popular press and the academic community. This first version of the method was originally called the oral method, the aural-oral method or the structural approach. The audio-lingual method truly began to take shape near the end of the 1950s, this time due government pressure resulting from the space race. The teacher would go over it the day before.
Due to weaknesses in performance, and more importantly because of Noam Chomsky’s theoretical attack on language learning as a set of habits, audio-lingual methods are rarely the primary method of instruction today. However, elements of the method still survive in many textbooks. The oral approach was developed from the 1930s to the 1960s by British applied linguists such as Harold Palmer and A. They were familiar with the direct method as well as the work of 19th-century applied linguists such as Otto Jespersen and Daniel Jones but attempted to formally develop a more scientifically founded approach to teaching English than was evidenced by the direct method. A number of large-scale investigations about language learning and the increased emphasis on reading skills in the 1920s led to the notion of “vocabulary control”.
It was discovered that languages have a core basic vocabulary of about 2,000 words that occur frequently in written texts, and it was assumed that mastery of these would greatly aid reading comprehension. Foreign Language textbooks as late as the 1980s and elements of it still appear in current texts. Directed practice has students repeat phrases. This method is used by U. It can quickly provide a phrasebook-type knowledge of the language. Within these limits, the student’s usage is accurate and precise.
However the student’s choice of what to say is not flexible. High School Spanish taught as a second language to a class of native English speakers at an American private school in Massachusetts. The direct method, sometimes also called natural method, is a method that refrains from using the learners’ native language and just uses the target language. It was established in Germany and France around 1900 and is best represented by the methods devised by Berlitz and de Sauzé, although neither claims originality and it has been re-invented under other names. According to this method, printed language and text must be kept away from second language learners for as long as possible, just as a first language learner does not use printed words until he has good grasp of speech.
Learning of writing and spelling should be delayed until after the printed word has been introduced, and grammar and translation should also be avoided because this would involve the application of the learner’s first language. The method relies on a step-by-step progression based on question-and-answer sessions which begin with naming common objects such as doors, pencils, floors, etc. It provides a motivating start as the learner begins using a foreign language almost immediately. Lessons progress to verb forms and other grammatical structures with the goal of learning about thirty new words per lesson. This section’s tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia’s guide to writing better articles for suggestions. In the 19th century, François Gouin went to Hamburg to learn German.
When he returned home, he found that his three-year-old nephew had learned to speak French. He noticed the boy was very curious and upon his first visit to a mill, he wanted to see everything and be told the name of everything. After digesting the experience silently, he then reenacted his experiences in play, talking about what he learned to whoever would listen or to himself. The series method is a variety of the direct method in that experiences are directly connected to the target language. Gouin felt that such direct “translation” of experience into words, makes for a “living language”. Gouin also noticed that children organize concepts in succession of time, relating a sequence of concepts in the same order.