The age-adjusted death rate from cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. The epidemiology methods to identify children cancer is the study of the factors affecting cancer, as a way to infer possible trends and causes.
The study of cancer epidemiology uses epidemiological methods to find the cause of cancer and to identify and develop improved treatments. This area of study must contend with problems of lead time bias and length time bias. Lead time bias is the concept that early diagnosis may artificially inflate the survival statistics of a cancer, without really improving the natural history of the disease. Some cancer researchers have argued that negative cancer clinical trials lack sufficient statistical power to discover a benefit to treatment.
This may be due to fewer patients enrolled in the study than originally planned. State and regional cancer registries are organizations that abstract clinical data about cancer from patient medical records. These institutions provide information to state and national public health groups to help track trends in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Observational epidemiological studies that show associations between risk factors and specific cancers mostly serve to generate hypotheses about potential interventions that could reduce cancer incidence or morbidity. The approximate relative levels of the preventable causes of cancer in the United States, taken from the article Cancer prevention.
The most significant risk factor is age. According to cancer researcher Robert A. Weinberg, “If we lived long enough, sooner or later we all would get cancer. Essentially all of the increase in cancer rates between prehistoric times and people who died in England between 1901 and 1905 is due to increased lifespans. Although the age-related increase in cancer risk is well-documented, the age-related patterns of cancer are complex. Some types of cancer, like testicular cancer, have early-life incidence peaks, for reasons unknown. Besides, the rate of age-related increase in cancer incidence varies between cancer types with, for instance, prostate cancer incidence accelerating much faster than brain cancer.