A parenting style parenting most children a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting can be more essential than the quantity of time spent with the child. Children go through different stages in life, therefore parents create their own parenting styles from a combination of factors that evolve over time as children begin to develop their own personalities. During the stage of infancy, parents try to adjust to a new lifestyle in terms of adapting and bonding with their new infant.
A child’s temperament and parents’ cultural patterns have an influence on the kind of parenting style a child may receive. The degree to which a child’s education is part of parenting is a further matter of debate. Early research in parenting and child development found that parents who provide their children with proper nurture, independence and firm control, have children who appear to have higher levels of competence and are socially skilled and proficient. Parenting practices are defined as specific behaviors that parents use to socialize their children”, while parenting style is “the emotional climate in which parents raise their children”.
One study association that has been made is the difference between “child’s outcome and continuous measures of parental behavior”. Some of the associations that are listed include the following: support, involvement, warmth, approval, control, monitoring, and harsh punishment. Parenting practices such as parental support, monitoring and firm boundaries appear to be linked to higher school grades, less behavior problems and better mental health. Beginning in the 17th century, two philosophers independently wrote works that have been widely influential in child rearing. John Locke’s 1693 book Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a well known foundation for educational pedagogy from a Puritan standpoint.
Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development describes how children represent and reason about the world. Erik Erikson, a developmental psychologist, proposed eight life stages through which each person must develop. In order to move on to the next stage, the person must work out a “crisis” in which a new dilemma must be solved. Rudolf Dreikurs believed that pre-adolescent children’s misbehavior was caused by their unfulfilled wish to be a member of a social group. He argued that they then act out a sequence of four mistaken goals: first they seek attention. If they do not get it, they aim for power, then revenge and finally feel inadequate.
Frank Furedi is a sociologist with a particular interest in parenting and families. He believes that the actions of parents are less decisive than others claim. He describes the term infant determinism as the determination of a person’s life prospects by what happens to them during infancy, arguing that there is little or no evidence for its truth. Diana Baumrind is a researcher who focused on the classification of parenting styles.