Phonic for children

This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find out more phonic for children page archiving. These activities focus on the common spelling patterns for the nine vowel phonemes that are introduced in Year 2. These feature in the Year 2 word level objectives in The National Literacy Strategy Framework for Teaching.

Build a sandcastle and get to know the common spelling patterns for the Year 2 vowel phonemes. Help Salty Sam write a postcard and get used to using words containing alternative spelling patterns for vowel phonemes in sentences. Watch how Magic Pencil writes some words containing vowel phonemes. Have some fun playing the games and doing the activity sheets. You’ll find more Printable Resources in the Teachers and Parents section. Please forward this error screen to 184.

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This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find out more about page archiving. More information and help with installing the Flash Player can be foundon the BBC’s Webwise pages. If you can see the Flash movie then please ignore this message. Build a sandcastle by clicking on the sandpie with the correct spelling to fill in the gaps in the words written in the sand. Not to be confused with Tick.

A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups. Common motor and phonic tics are, respectively, eye blinking and throat clearing. Tics are classified as either motor or phonic, and simple or complex. Motor tics are movement-based tics affecting discrete muscle groups. Phonic tics are involuntary sounds produced by moving air through the nose, mouth, or throat. They may be alternately referred to as verbal tics or vocal tics, but most diagnosticians prefer the term phonic tics to reflect the notion that the vocal cords are not involved in all tics that produce sound.

Simple motor tics are typically sudden, brief, meaningless movements that usually involve only one group of muscles, such as eye blinking, head jerking, or shoulder shrugging. Motor tics can be of an endless variety and may include such movements as hand clapping, neck stretching, mouth movements, head, arm or leg jerks, and facial grimacing. A simple phonic tic can be almost any sound or noise, with common vocal tics being throat clearing, sniffing, or grunting. Complex motor tics are typically more purposeful-appearing and of a longer nature. They may involve a cluster of movements and appear coordinated. Tics are described as semi-voluntary or unvoluntary, because they are not strictly involuntary—they may be experienced as a voluntary response to the unwanted, premonitory urge. Tics may increase as a result of stress, fatigue, boredom, or high-energy emotions, which can include negative emotions, such as anxiety, as well as positive emotions, such as excitement or anticipation.

Immediately preceding tic onset, most individuals are aware of an urge that is similar to the need to yawn, sneeze, blink, or scratch an itch. Individuals describe the need to tic as a buildup of tension that they consciously choose to release, as if they “had to do it”. Complex tics are rarely seen in the absence of simple tics. Tourette syndrome is the more severe expression of a spectrum of tic disorders, which are thought to be due to the same genetic vulnerability. Nevertheless, most cases of Tourette syndrome are not severe. While many tics, such as throat clearing and eye blinking, are normal across populations, some tics represent disordered behavior from a psychiatric perspective.

Dystonias, paroxysmal dyskinesias, chorea, other genetic conditions, and secondary causes of tics should be ruled out in the differential diagnosis. Tics that begin after the age of 18 are generally not considered symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome, but may be diagnosed as an “Other specified” or “Unspecified” tic disorder. Tests may be ordered as necessary to rule out other conditions: For example, when diagnostic confusion between tics and seizure activity exists, an EEG may be ordered, or symptoms may indicate that an MRI is needed to rule out brain abnormalities. Tics must also be distinguished from fasciculations.