For the related UK qualification, physical education of children of early age City and Guilds. Test written by four-year-old child in 1972, former Soviet Union.
ECCE has a global scope, and caring for and educating young children has always been an integral part of human societies. Children remember and repeat actions they observe. While the first two years of a child’s life are spent in the creation of a child’s first “sense of self”, most children are able to differentiate between themselves and others by their second year. This differentiation is crucial to the child’s ability to determine how they should function in relation to other people.
2 years of age, can be influential to future education. With proper guidance and exploration children begin to become more comfortable with their environment, if they have that steady relationship to guide them. Parents who are consistent with response times, and emotions will properly make this attachment early on. A child exploring comfortably due to having a secure attachment with caregiver. Children’s curiosity and imagination naturally evoke learning when unfettered. Learning through play will allow a child to develop cognitively. Tassoni suggests that “some play opportunities will develop specific individual areas of development, but many will develop several areas.
Thus, It is important that practitioners promote children’s development through play by using various types of play on a daily basis. Davy states that the British Children’s Act of 1989 links to play-work as the act works with play workers and sets the standards for the setting such as security, quality and staff ratios. Learning through play has been seen regularly in practice as the most versatile way a child can learn. Piaget provides an explanation for why learning through play is such a crucial aspect of learning as a child. However, due to the advancement of technology, the art of play has started to dissolve and has transformed into “playing” through technology. Greenfield, quoted by the author, Stuart Wolpert, in the article, “Is Technology Producing a Decline in Critical Thinking and Analysis? No media is good for everything.
Many oppose the theory of learning through play because they think children are not gaining new knowledge. In reality, play is the first way children learn to make sense of the world at a young age. As children watch adults interact around them, they pick up on their slight nuances, from facial expressions to their tone of voice. They are exploring different roles, learning how things work, and learning to communicate and work with others.
The Developmental Interaction Approach is based on the theories of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, John Dewey and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. The approach focuses on learning through discovery. Social: the way in which a child interacts with others Children develop an understanding of their responsibilities and rights as members of families and communities, as well as an ability to relate to and work with others. Emotional: the way in which a child creates emotional connections and develops self-confidence. Emotional connections develop when children relate to other people and share feelings.
Language: the way in which a child communicates, including how they present their feelings and emotions, both to other people and to themselves. At 3 months, children employ different cries for different needs. At 6 months they can recognize and imitate the basic sounds of spoken language. In the first 3 years, children need to be exposed to communication with others in order to pick up language. Normal” language development is measured by the rate of vocabulary acquisition.
Cognitive skills: the way in which a child organizes information. Cognitive skills include problem solving, creativity, imagination and memory. They embody the way in which children make sense of the world. Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky proposed a “socio-cultural learning theory” that emphasized the impact of social and cultural experiences on individual thinking and the development of mental processes. Vygotsky’s theory emerged in the 1930s and is still discussed today as a means of improving and reforming educational practices.
Vygotsky argued that since cognition occurs within a social context, our social experiences shape our ways of thinking about and interpreting the world. Although Vygotsky predated social constructivists, he is commonly classified as one. Vygotsky proposed that children learn through their interactions with more knowledgeable peers and adults. According to Vygotsky, “what is in the zone of proximal development today will be the actual developmental level tomorrow”. ZPD encourages early childhood educators to adopt “scaffolding”, in which a teacher adjusts support to fit a child’s learning needs.
Scaffolding requires specially trained teachers, a differentiated curriculum, and additional learning time. Vygotsky advocated that teachers facilitate rather than direct student learning. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural learning theory has also proven especially important for the education of the mentally disabled. Jean Piaget’s constructivist theory gained influence in the 1970s and ’80s. Although Piaget himself was primarily interested in a descriptive psychology of cognitive development, he also laid the groundwork for a constructivist theory of learning. According to Piaget’s theory, when young children encounter new information, they attempt to accommodate and assimilate it into their existing understanding of the world. Accommodation involves adapting mental schemas and representations in order to make them consistent with reality.
Assimilation involves fitting new information into their pre-existing schemas. Thus, crucial components of early childhood education include exploration, manipulating objects, and experiencing new environments. Subsequent reflection on these experiences is equally important. Piaget’s concept of reflective abstraction was particularly influential in mathematical education.