Physical education of older children

The focus of the Global recommendations on physical activity for health is primary prevention of NCDs through physical activity at population level, and the primary target audience physical education of older children these recommendations are policy-makers at national level. Please forward this error screen to 216. Sleep is not a passive extravagance that people allow themselves to indulge in.

On the contrary, sleep is a highly regulated, active state of being that engages many aspects of one’s physiology in a complex manner. While the purpose of sleep remains a complicated mystery, depriving one’s self of sleep has serious consequences for one’s health and waking functions. Nevertheless, sleep continues to be encroached upon by daily activities. Biological Factors That Affect Sleep Sleepiness refers to the tendency for a waking person to fall asleep. This tendency may be strong or weak, and is determined by both homeostatic and circadian influences.

While sleepiness is primarily determined by homeostatic and circadian influences, environmental and time-of-day factors influence the immediate effects of sleepiness on daytime functioning. Daytime sleep tendency also appears to be affected by age or, more specifically, pubertal development. Mary Carskadon and colleagues examined sleep and sleepiness in children studied annually from age ten to age sixteen or seventeen. Societal Factors For the average middle and high school student, getting 9.

2 hours of sleep or more on school nights may seem impossible and not worth the sacrifices required to maintain such a schedule. The twenty-four-hour society of the United States makes ever-increasing demands on the time available for studying, working, and exercising, and offers ever-increasing opportunities for socializing and recreating. In addition, role models for marginalizing the importance of sleep are plentiful. Physicians, lawyers, stockbrokers, and even political operatives are portrayed on television as heroically pushing their physical limits and rising above their lack of sleep. Closer to home, parents often fail to convince children to “do as I say not as I do” with regard to obtaining a good night’s sleep, as they often allow their own commitments to encroach on sleep. While societal and familial factors influence these trends, at least one biological process may also be involved.

As children move through puberty they often begin to prefer activities occurring later in the day. This shift toward evening preference may be expressed biologically as a shift in the timing of the body’s readiness for sleep and wake, also referred to as circadian timing of sleep phase. The direct consequence of these social, behavioral, and biological trends is that older children and adolescents often do not obtain enough sleep on school nights to optimize daytime alertness and, they therefore carry a burgeoning sleep debt into the weekend. The typical solution is to wake up later on weekends.

Effects of Insufficient Sleep The consequences of insufficient sleep and chronic daytime sleepiness in the lives of school-age children and adolescents are difficult to characterize at this time due to the limited number of scientific studies with this age range. Decreased behavioral difficulties have been associated with successful treatment of sleep disorders. Of particular note for older adolescents, drivers age twenty-five or younger were shown to be responsible for a majority of fall-asleep automobile crashes in one region of the country. Tests of cognitive performance administered to students with sleep disorders or to healthy students experimentally sleep-restricted have generally failed to produce consistent results, but data suggest that students process information and react more slowly following inadequate sleep, and may be more prone to errors with socalled higher cognitive functions that involve abstract problem solving, creativity, or rule-governed behavior.

In conclusion, there is a need to learn more about the life-enhancing benefits of increasing sleep and the high cost of failing to protect it among children and adolescents. Determining the optimal quantity and timing of nocturnal sleep is likely to vary among individuals but existing trends suggest that many students should consider expanding school-night sleep opportunities, especially in the second decade. In Sleeping and Waking Disorders: Indications and Techniques, ed. When Worlds Collide: Adolescent Need for Sleep Versus Societal Demands. Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Sociological, and Psychological Influences.