Math is all around the young child from day one. In one hour you will go to school. You were born on the 2nd. Number itself cannot be defined and practical mathematics for children of number grows from experience with real objects but eventually they become abstract ideas.
It is one of the most abstract concepts that the human mind has encountered. No physical aspects of objects can ever suggest the idea of number. The ability to count, to compute, and to use numerical relationships are among the most significant among human achievements. Arithmetic deals with shape, space, numbers, and their relationships and attributes by the use of numbers and symbols.
It is a study of the science of pattern and includes patterns of all kinds, such as numerical patterns, abstract patterns, patterns of shape and motion. In the Montessori classroom, five families with math are presented to the child: arithmetic, geometry, statistics and calculus. Arithmetic is the science of computing using positive real numbers. It is specifically the process of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
The materials of the Primary Montessori classroom also present sensorial experiences in geometry and algebra. Little children are naturally attracted to the science of number. Mathematics, like language, is the product of the human intellect. It is therefore part of the nature of a human being. Mathematics arises form the human mind as it comes into contact with the world and as it contemplates the universe and the factors of time and space.