Please forward this error screen to sharedip-2322922633. Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing the attitudes, skills, and behaviors to live in harmony with oneself, preschool education subject developing environment others, and with the natural environment.
There are numerous United Nations declarations on the importance of peace education. Often the theory or philosophy of peace education has been assumed and not articulated. Johan Galtung suggested in 1975 that no theory for peace education existed and that there was clearly an urgent need for such theory. Learning to manage anger, “fight fair” and improve communication through skills such as listening, turn-taking, identifying needs, and separating facts from emotions, constitute the main elements of these programs. Peace education programs centered on democracy education typically focus on the political processes associated with conflict, and postulate that with an increase in democratic participation the likelihood of societies resolving conflict through violence and war decreases. Peace education programs centered on raising awareness of human rights typically focus at the level of policies that humanity ought to adopt in order to move closer to a peaceful global community.
Human rights education “faces continual elaboration, a significant theory-practice gap and frequent challenge as to its validity”. Human rights education does not work in communities fraught with conflict unless it is part of a comprehensive approach In fact, such education can be counterproductive and lead to greater conflict if people become aware of rights which are not realized. To prevent these outcomes, many such programs are now being combined with aspects of conflict resolution and democracy education schools of thought, along with training in nonviolent action. Some approaches to peace education start from insights gleaned from psychology which recognize the developmental nature of human psychosocial dispositions. Essentially, while conflict-promoting attitudes and behaviours are characteristic of earlier phases of human development, unity-promoting attitudes and behaviours emerge in later phases of healthy development. Modern forms of peace education relate to new scholarly explorations and applications of techniques used in peace education internationally, in plural communities and with individuals.
Imagine that medical practitioners would not distinguish between invasive surgery to remove malignant tumors and surgery to correct one’s vision. Imagine also that while surgeries are practiced, no research and no evaluation of their differential effectiveness accompany them. The field would be considered neither very serious nor very trustworthy. A general or integrated theory of peace is needed: one that can holistically account for the intrapersonal, inter-personal, inter-group and international dynamics of peace, as well as its main principles and pre-requisites.
An essential component of this integrated theory must also be the recognition that a culture of peace can only result from an authentic process of transformation, both individual and collective. Up-to-date news about peace education initiatives is provided by the Global Campaign for Peace Education on their website. Another source is the Culture of Peace News Network, which is dedicated to education for a culture of peace. Peace Education: Exploring Ethical and Philosophical Foundations. Constitution of UNESCO, adopted 16 November 1945.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Section 26. Recommendation Concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace, and Education Relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Section 18. Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 29. Declaration of Principles on Tolerance, Articles 1 and 4.
United Study on Disarmament and Non-proliferation Education, Article 20. Page Peace Education: Exploring Ethical and Philosophical Foundations. Human Rights as Education for Peace’. Human Rights Education for the Twenty-First Century. Essays in Peace Research, Volume 1.