1896, was a psychologist who contributed mostly to developmental psychology. Puberty psychology today posed that in a social environment, children develop higher cognitive functions in practical activities.
His theories were controversial in the Soviet Union and they remained virtually unknown, although introduced into the Western world in the 1930s, until the 1970s. This is when they became a pivotal point in models built in developmental and educational psychology. Alexander Luria was a neuropsychologist and developmental psychologist. Together with Vygotsky, he helped create cultural-historical psychology and was a leader of the Vygotsky Circle. Cultural-historical psychology never existed as such during Vygotsky’s lifetime.
He never accomplished a developmental theory of his own and, by his own admission, died at the threshold of a new psychological theory of consciousness. Vygotsky believed in the “new man” that he referred to as a “superman” of the future Communist society and advocated for a psychological theory that would account for the development from the actual level of human development to the potential one of a “superman”. This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the high functions originate as actual relationships between individuals. This idea was well known at least fifty years before Vygotsky, was advocated for by a number of other psychologists, and is known under the label of “sociogenesis”.
The post-Vygotskian tradition focuses, thus, not only on individual learning and the influences adults and peers have on learning, but also on how cultural beliefs and attitudes affect instruction and learning. The larger project of the new psychology of Vygotsky and Luria failed, and no universal integrative theory of human mind and development was built by the time of Vygotsky’s death in 1934 or, for that matter, ever after. A few of these earlier influences were subsequently downplayed, misunderstood or even totally ignored and forgotten. Vygotsky and Luria informally collaborated with other psychologists, educationalists, medical specialists, physiologists, and neuroscientists. The foundation of the integrative science of the mind, brain, and behavior in their bio-social development, was the main work of the Circle. They incorporated ideas of social and interpersonal relations, the practices of empirical scientific research, and “Stalinist science” founded on the discursive practices of Soviet science in the 1930s.
In 1924, the Circle was formed in Moscow after Vygotsky moved there from Gomel, Belarus. At the Institute of Psychology he met Zankov, Solv’ev, Sakharov, and Varshava, as well as Alexander Luria, with whom he would go on to collaborate with. The group grew at a gradual rate and all research was conducted in Moscow, Kharhov, and Liningrad, located in the Soviet Union. The Cambridge Handbook of Cultural-Historical Psychology.
What is this book and what is it about? There can be no cultural-historical psychology without neuropsychology. Revisionist Revolution in Vygotsky Studies: The State of the Art. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: What You Should Know”. He laid out a most ambitious program of unification with an ‘historico-cultural’ approach as the central feature. Though tuberculosis cut him off at a very early age, Vygotsky left prolific disciples, most notably Luria and A. Leont’ev, who founded the Vygotsky school of cognitive psychology, focused on brain damage and on child development.
The “magic of signs”: developmental trajectory of cultural mediation. Luria and Vygotsky: challenges to current developmental research. Tracing the untraceable: the nature-nurture controversy in cultural-historical psychology. Dynamic assessment in search of its identity in Yasnitsky, A. Cultural-historical neuropsychological perspective on learning disability. Cultural-historical theory and cultural neuropsychology today.
A review of inner speech in cultural-historical tradition. From expressive movement to the “basic problem”: The Vygotsky-Luria-Eisensteinian theory of art. The need for a dialogical science: Considering the legacy of Russian-Soviet thinking for contemporary approaches in dialogic research. Cognition and its master: New challenges for cognitive science. Inner form as a notion migrating from West to East: Acknowledging the Humboldtian tradition in cultural-historical psychology.
К истории культурно-исторической гештальтпсихологии: Выготский, Лурия, Коффка, Левин и др. A History of Cultural-Historical Gestalt Psychology: Vygotsky, Luria, Koffka, Lewin, and others. The problem of consciousness in Vygotsky’s cultural-historical psychology. Activity theory is a dead end for cultural-historical psychology. The essential commentators in Part II. Vygotsky in America in Miller, R. Vygotsky Circle as a Personal Network of Scholars: Restoring Connections Between People and Ideas”.