Responsibilities of parents for the upbringing and education of children

For the manga series, see Earl Cain. Detail from the “Baptism Window” at St. Mary’responsibilities of parents for the upbringing and education of children Episcopal Cathedral in Memphis, Tennessee, showing godparents from the mid-20th century.

Christianity, is someone who bears witness to a child’s baptism, although the term has also been used in a legal sense. As early as the 2nd century AD, infant baptism had begun to gain acceptance among Christians for the spiritual purification and social initiation of infants. The requirement for some confession of faith necessitated the use of adults who acted as sponsors for the child. Normally, these sponsors were the natural parents of a child, as emphasized in 408 by St. Augustine who suggested that they could, it seems exceptionally, be other individuals. By the 5th century, male sponsors were referred to as “spiritual fathers”, and by the end of the 6th century, they were being noted to as “compaters” and “commaters”, suggesting that these were being seen as spiritual co-parents. This pattern was marked by the creation of legal barriers to marriage that paralleled those for other forms of kin.

Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin preserved infant baptism against the attacks of more radical reformers including Anabaptists, and with it, sponsors at baptism. In the early church, one sponsor seems to have been the norm, but in the early Middle Ages, there seems to have been two, one of each sex, and this practice has been largely maintained in Orthodox Christianity. The Church of England, the mother Church of the Anglican Communion, retained godparents in baptism, formally removing the marriage barriers in 1540, but the issue of the role and status of godparents continued to be debated in the English Church. At present, in the Church of England, relatives can stand as godparents, and although it is not clear that parents can be godparents, they sometimes are. There is no requirement for clergy to baptize those from outside their parishes, and baptism can be reasonably delayed so that the conditions, including suitable godparents, can be met. Lutherans follow a similar theology of godparents as Roman Catholics.

They believe that godparents “help with their Christian upbringing, especially if they should lose their parents”. Lutherans, like Roman Catholics, believe that a godparent must be both a baptized and confirmed Christian. The Orthodox institution of godparenthood has been the least affected of the major traditions by change. In some instances, the godfather is responsible for naming the child. A godparent to a child will then act as a sponsor at the child’s wedding. A child being baptized with her parents and godparents. The Catholic institution of godparenthood survived the Reformation largely unchanged.

A godparent must normally be an appropriate person, at least sixteen years of age, a confirmed Catholic who has received the Eucharist, not under any canonical penalty, and may not be the parent of the child. Someone who belongs to another Christian church cannot become a godparent but can be a ‘witness’ in conjunction with a Catholic sponsor. In some Catholic and Orthodox countries, particularly in southern Europe, Latin America, and the Philippines, the relationship between parents and godparents or co-godparents has been seen as particularly important and distinctive. These relationships create mutual obligations and responsibilities that may be socially useful for participants. The Spanish custom was also adopted in the Philippines, a predominantly Christian country in Southeast Asia that was a former part of the Spanish Empire. The Filipino terms ninong for godfather and ninang for godmother, were also borrowed from Hispanic custom, and apply to godparents in both a child’s Baptism and the child’s later Confirmation. Godparents are noted features of fairy tales and folklore written from the 17th century onwards, and by extension, have found their way into many modern works of fiction.

In Godfather Death, presented by the Brothers Grimm, the archetype is, unusually, a supernatural godfather. In the Yoruba religion Santería, godparents must have completed their santo or their Ifá. Brit Mila—the sandek holds the baby boy. There are two roles in the Jewish circumcision ceremony that are sometimes translated as godparent. The sandek holds the baby boy while he is circumcised. In earlier times the role of godparent carried with it a legal responsibility for the child, should he or she become orphaned. Cramer, Baptism and Change in the Early Middle Ages c.

Christian Initiation: Baptism in the Medieval West. Durston, ‘Puritan rule and the failure of cultural revolution’, in C. The Oxford Guide to The Book of Common Prayer: A Worldwide Survey. The Works of the Reverend John Wesley, A. The United Methodist Book of Worship.

Instructions for Weddings, Divorces, Baptisms, Funerals, and Memorials “Archived copy”. The Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms, Second Edition: Revised and Expanded. Calvin’s Company of Pastors: Pastoral Care and the Emerging Reformed Church, 1536-1609. Lifting Hearts to the Lord: Worship with John Calvin in Sixteenth-Century Geneva. First Congregational Church – United Church of Christ.

You’re welcome to invite one or two Godparents to take part in the baptism service, though this is optional and matter of personal choice. The Baptism of Your Child: A Book for Presbyterian Families. Transgender Catholics Can’t Be Godparents, Vatican Says”. Waters, “Taking a Godson” , Journals of The Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, Vol. This page was last edited on 26 February 2018, at 15:45. For parental care in animals, see Parental investment. The English pediatrician and psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott described the concept of “good-enough” parenting in which a minimum of prerequisites for healthy child development are met.