Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out tasks for literacy, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text. Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:CCSS. 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Please click here for the ADA Compliant version of the English Language Arts Standards. World illiteracy halved between 1970 and 2015 . Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write . The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism.
Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society”. Literacy is thought to have first emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8,000 BCE. Script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, Egypt, lowland Mesoamerica, and China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, literacy was “a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production”. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. The earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet.
Another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE. According to Frank Moore Cross, these inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet. The consonantal system of the Canaanite script inspired alphabetical developments in subsequent systems. According to Goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians. However, many Semitic scholars now believe that Ancient Greek is more consistent with an early form Canaanite that was used c. While the earliest Greek inscriptions are dated c.
Phoenician, which is considered to contain the first “linear alphabet”, rapidly spread to the Mediterranean port cities in northern Canaan. When the Israelites migrated to Canaan between 1200 and 1001 BCE, they also adopted a variation of the Canaanite alphabet. Baruch ben Neriah, Jeremiah’s scribe, used this alphabet to create the later scripts of the Old Testament. The Aramaic alphabet also emerged sometime between 1200 and 1001 BCE. As the Bronze Age collapsed, the Aramaeans moved into Canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts.
The Aramaic language would die out with the spread of Islam and with it, its influence of Arabic. Until recently it was thought that the majority of people were illiterate in ancient times. However, recent work would challenge this perception. When the Western Roman Empire fell apart, literacy became a distinguishing mark of the elite, and communications skills were politically important. Psalms or two of the Apostles’ epistles or some other part of Scripture. And if he is illiterate he shall go at the first, third and sixth hours to someone who can teach and has been appointed for him. He shall stand before him and learn very studiously and with all gratitude.
The fundamentals of a syllable, the verbs and nouns shall all be written for him and even if he does not want to he shall be compelled to read. Adult literacy rates have increased at a constant pace since 1950. Literacy data published by UNESCO displays that since 1950, the adult literacy rate at the world level has increased by 5 percentage points every decade on average, from 55. 7 per cent in 1950 to 86. However, for four decades, the population growth was so rapid that the number of illiterate adults kept increasing, rising from 700 million in 1950 to 878 million in 1990.