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The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. The Clandestine HUMINT page deals with the functions of that discipline, including espionage and active counterintelligence. This page deals with Clandestine HUMINT operational techniques, also called “tradecraft”. Many of the techniques here are important in counterintelligence. Defensive counterintelligence personnel need to know them to recognize espionage, sabotage, etc.
This page deals primarily with one’s own assets. See double agent for additional information adversary sources that a country has turned to its own side. This description is based around the foreign intelligence service, of country B, operating in and against country A. It may also include operations against non-state organizations operating in country B, with or without country B support.
It may also involve offensive counterintelligence against country D assets operating in country B. The basic structure here can be pertinent to a domestic service operating against a non-national group within its borders. Depending on the legal structure of the country, there may be significant, or very few, restrictions on domestic HUMINT. The most basic question will be whether criminal prosecution, or stopping operations, is the goal. Typically, criminal prosecution will be the primary goal against drug and slavery groups, with breaking up their operations the secondary goal. If there are separate organizations with diplomatic and nonofficial cover, there may be two chiefs.