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Schools most frequently use the inclusion model for selected students with mild to moderate special needs. Inclusive education differs from the ‘integration’ or ‘mainstreaming’ model of education, which tended to be concerned principally with disability and special educational needs, and learners changing or becoming ‘ready for’ or deserving of accommodation by the mainstream. By contrast, inclusion is about the child’s right to participate and the school’s duty to accept the child. A premium is placed upon full participation by students with disabilities and upon respect for their social, civil, and educational rights. Feeling included is not limited to physical and cognitive disabilities, but also includes the full range of human diversity with respect to ability, language, culture, gender, age and of other forms of human differences.
By contrast, inclusion is about the child’s right to participate and the school’s duty to accept the child returning to the US Supreme Court’s Brown vs. US and other parts of the world. Classification of students by disability is standard in educational systems which use diagnostic, educational and psychological testing, among others. Inclusion has two sub-types: the first is sometimes called regular inclusion or partial inclusion, and the other is full inclusion. Inclusive practice is not always inclusive but is a form of integration.
For example, students with special needs are educated in regular classes for nearly all of the day, or at least for more than half of the day. Whenever possible, the students receive any additional help or special instruction in the general classroom, and the student is treated like a full member of the class. In the “full inclusion” setting, the students with special needs are always educated alongside students without special needs, as the first and desired option while maintaining appropriate supports and services. Some educators say this might be more effective for the students with special needs. Much more commonly, local educational agencies have the responsibility to organize services for children with disabilities. They may provide a variety of settings, from special classrooms to mainstreaming to inclusion, and assign, as teachers and administrators often do, students to the system that seems most likely to help the student achieve his or her individual educational goals. Students with disabilities who are not included are typically either mainstreamed or segregated.
A mainstreamed student attends some general education classes, typically for less than half the day, and often for less academically rigorous, or if you will, more interesting and career-oriented classes. A segregated student attends no classes with non-disabled students with disability a tested category determined before or at school entrance. He or she might attend a special school termed residential schools that only enrolls other students with disabilities, or might be placed in a dedicated, self-contained classroom in a school that also enrolls general education students. Residential schools have been criticized for decades, and the government has been asked repeatedly to keep funds and services in the local districts, including for family support services for parents who may be currently single and raising a child with significant challenges on their own. The new anti-discriminatory climate has provided the basis for much change in policy and statute, nationally and internationally. Inclusion has been enshrined at the same time that segregation and discrimination have been rejected.
The Convention against Discrimination in Education of UNESCO prohibits any discrimination, exclusion or segregation in education. States Parties to ensure an inclusive education system at all levels. The proportion of students with disabilities who are included varies by place and by type of disability, but it is relatively common for students with milder disabilities and less common with certain kinds of severe disabilities. This section possibly contains original research. Although once hailed, usually by its opponents, as a way to increase achievement while decreasing costs, full inclusion does not save money, but is more cost-beneficial and cost-effective. Collaboration between parents or guardians, teachers or para educators, specialists, administration, and outside agencies. Sufficient funding so that schools will be able to develop programs for students based on student need instead of the availability of funding.
Indeed, the students with special needs do receive funds from the federal government, by law originally the Educational for All Handicapped Children Act of 1974 to the present day, Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, which requires its use in the most integrated setting. Inclusion often involved individuals who otherwise might be at an institution or residential facility. Today, longitudinal studies follow the outcomes of students with disabilities in classrooms, which include college graduations and quality of life outcomes. To be avoided are negative outcomes that include forms of institutionalization. Students in an inclusive classroom are generally placed with their chronological age-mates, regardless of whether the students are working above or below the typical academic level for their age. Also, to encourage a sense of belonging, emphasis is placed on the value of friendships.
Teachers often nurture a relationship between a student with special needs and a same-age student without a special educational need. In this model, the content teacher will deliver the lesson and the special education teacher will assist students individual needs and enforce classroom management as needed. In this model, the teacher with the most experience in the content will deliver the lesson and the other teacher will float or observe. This model is commonly used for data retrieval during IEP observations or Functional Behavior Analysis. In this model, the room is divided into stations in which the students will visit with their small groups.
In this model, one half of the class is taught by the content teacher and one half is taught by the special education teacher. Both groups are being taught the same lesson, just in a smaller group. In this method, the content teacher will teach the lesson to the class, while the special education teacher will teach a small group of students an alternative lesson. Both teachers share the planning, teaching, and supporting equally. This is the traditional method, and often the most successful co-teaching model. In 2005, comprehensive health supports were described in National Goals for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities as universally available, affordable and promoting inclusion, as supporting well-informed, freely chose health care decisions, culturally competent, promoting health promotion, and insuring well trained and respectful health care providers.
Inclusion settings allow children with and without disabilities to play and interact every day, even when they are receiving therapeutic services. When a child displays fine motor difficulty, his ability to fully participate in common classroom activities, such as cutting, coloring, and zipping a jacket may be hindered. The importance of inclusive, integrated models of service delivery for children with disabilities has been widely researched indicating positive benefits. Educators generally say that some students with special needs are not good candidates for inclusion.
Many schools expect a fully included student to be working at or near grade level, but more fundamental requirements exist: First, being included requires that the student is able to attend school. Additionally, some students with special needs are poor candidates for inclusion because of their effect on other students. For example, students with severe behavioral problems, such that they represent a serious physical danger to others, are poor candidates for inclusion, because the school has a duty to provide a safe environment to all students and staff. Finally, some students are not good candidates for inclusion because the normal activities in a general education classroom will prevent them from learning. Most students with special needs do not fall into these extreme categories, as most students do attend school, are not violent, do not have severe sensory processing disorders, etc. Bowe says that regular inclusion, but not full inclusion, is a reasonable approach for a significant majority of students with special needs.