Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. It is a characteristic of children, variously defined, that motivates differences in school programming. It is thought to persist as a trait into adult life, with various consequences studied in longitudinal studies of giftedness over the last century. The various definitions of intellectual giftedness include either general high the development of children according to the methods Zaitseva or specific abilities.
For example, by some definitions an intellectually gifted person may have a striking talent for mathematics without equally strong language skills. The identification of giftedness first emerged after the development of IQ tests for school placement. Because of the key role that gifted education programs in schools play in the identification of gifted individuals, both children and adults, it is worthwhile to examine how schools define the term “gifted”. For many years, psychometricians and psychologists, following in the footsteps of Lewis Terman in 1916, equated giftedness with high IQ. This “legacy” survives to the present day, in that giftedness and high IQ continue to be equated in some conceptions of giftedness. Research conducted in the 1980s and 1990s has provided data which support notions of multiple components to intelligence. The many different conceptions of giftedness presented, although distinct, are interrelated in several ways.
In Identifying Gifted Children: A Practical Guide, Susan K. There is a federal government statutory definition of gifted and talented students in the United States. The term “gifted and talented” when used in respect to students, children, or youth means students, children, or youth who give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities. 74th legislature of the State of Texas, Chapter 29, Subchapter D, Section 29. IQ scores can vary for the same person, so a person does not always belong to the same IQ score range each time the person is tested.
IQ score table data and pupil pseudonyms adapted from description of KABC-II norming study cited in Kaufman 2009. Many schools use a variety of assessments of students’ capability and potential when identifying gifted children. These may include portfolios of student work, classroom observations, achievement tests, and IQ test scores. Most educational professionals accept that no single criterion can be used in isolation to accurately identify a gifted child. One of the criteria used in identification may be an IQ test score. IQ classification varies from one publisher to another. IQ tests do not have validity for determining test-takers’ rank order at higher IQ levels, and are perhaps only effective at determining whether a student is gifted rather than distinguishing among levels of giftedness.