For parental care in animals, see Parental investment. The English pediatrician and psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott described the concept of “good-enough” parenting in which a minimum of prerequisites for healthy child development are met. Social class, wealth, culture and the main goal of child rearing have a very strong impact on what methods of child rearing are used by parents.
Cultural values play a major role in how a parent raises their child. In psychology, the parental investment theory suggests that basic differences between males and females in parental investment have great adaptive significance and lead to gender differences in mating propensities and preferences. A family’s social class plays a large role in the opportunities and resources that will be made available to a child. Working-class children often grow up at a disadvantage with the schooling, communities, and parental attention made available to them compared to middle-class or upper-class upbringings. A parenting style is the overall emotional climate in the home. Authoritative parenting Described by Baumrind as the “just right” style, it combines a medium level demands on the child and a medium level responsiveness from the parents. Authoritative parents rely on positive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment.
Parents are more aware of a child’s feelings and capabilities and support the development of a child’s autonomy within reasonable limits. A parenting practice is a specific behavior that a parent uses in raising a child. For example, a common parent practice intended to promote academic success is reading books to the child. Storytelling is an important parenting practice for children in many Indigenous American communities. Parenting practices reflect the cultural understanding of children. Parents in individualistic countries like Germany spend more time engaged in face-to-face interaction with babies and more time talking to the baby about the baby. In Kenya, Africa, many male parents are not encouraged to be involved in their children’s lives till they are about 12 years old.
Parenting skills are the guiding forces of a “good parent” to lead a child into a healthy adult, they influence on development, maintenance, and cessation of children’s negative and positive behaviors. Parenting takes a lot of skill and patience and is constant work and growth. The cognitive potential, social skills, and behavioral functioning a child acquires during the early years are fundamentally dependent on the quality of their interactions with their parents. Play that enhances socialization, autonomy, cohesion, calmness and trust. Keep open communication and stay educated on what their child is seeing, learning and doing and how it is affecting them. Parenting skills are often assumed to be self-evident or naturally present in parents. Parent-child relationship skills: quality time spend, positive communications and delighting affection.
Encouraging desirable behavior: praise and encouragement, nonverbal attention, facilitating engaging activities. Anticipating and planning: advanced planning and preparation for readying the child for challenges, finding out engaging and age appropriate developmental activities, preparing token economy for self-management practice with guidance, holding follow-up discussions, identifying possible negative developmental trajectories. Parents around the world want what they believe is best for their children. However, parents in different cultures have different ideas of what is best. Differences in values cause parents to interpret different actions in different ways. Asking questions is seen by many European American parents as a sign that the child is smart.
Italian parents, who value social and emotional competence, believe that asking questions is a sign that the child has good interpersonal skills. Differences in values can also cause parents to employ different tools to promote their values. Many European American parents expect specially purchased educational toys to improve their children’s intelligence. Some Spanish parents promote social skills by taking their children out for daily walks around the neighborhood. Storytelling is a way for Indigenous American children to learn about their identity, community, and cultural history. Indigenous myths and folklore often personify animals and objects, reaffirming the belief that everything possess a soul and must be respected. These stories help preserve language and are used to reflect certain values or cultural histories.
Consejos are a narrative form of advice giving that provides the recipient with maximum autonomy in the situation as a result of their indirect teaching style. Rather than directly informing the child what they should do, the parent instead might tell a story of a similar situation or scenario. The playful form of teasing is a parenting method used in some Indigenous American communities to keep children out of danger and guide their behavior. This form of teasing utilizes stories, fabrications, or empty threats to guide children in making safe, intelligent decisions. In Navajo families, a child’s development is partly focused on the importance of “respect” for all things as part of the child’s moral and human development.
Respect” in this sense is an emphasis of recognizing the significance of and understanding for one’s relationship with other things and people in the world. For example, in a Navajo parenting tool using nonverbal communication, children are initiated at an early age into the practice of an early morning run through any weather condition. A tool parents use in Indigenous American cultures is to incorporate children into everyday life, including adult activities, to pass on the parents’ knowledge by allowing the child to learn through observation. In some Mayan communities, young girls are not permitted around the hearth, for an extended period of time since corn is sacred. Despite this being an exception to the more common Indigenous American practice of integrating children into all adult activities, including cooking, it is a strong example of observational learning. Family planning is the decision regarding whether and when to become parents, including planning, preparing, and gathering resources.
Reproductive health and preconception care affect pregnancy, reproductive success, and the physical and mental health of both mother and child. Pregnant women and their unborn children benefit from moderate exercise, sufficient sleep, and high-quality nutrition. During pregnancy, the unborn child is affected by many decisions made by the parents, particularly choices linked to their lifestyle. The health, activity level and nutrition available to the mother can affect the child’s development before birth. A mother wishes joy towards her child in William Blake’s poem “Infant Joy”. This copy, Copy AA, was printed and painted in 1826, is currently held by the Fitzwilliam Museum.