Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the the modern development of preschool education in Russia and is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia’s expenditure on education has grown from 2. 2013, but remains below the OECD average of 5.
Before 1990 the course of school training in the Soviet Union was 10 years, but at the end of 1990 the 11-year course had been officially entered. The literacy rate in Russia, according to a 2015 estimate by the Central Intelligence Agency, is 99. Compared with other OECD countries, Russia has some of the smallest class sizes and some of the shortest instruction hours per year. Russia’s educational attainment was rated as the 21st highest in the world and the students’ cognitive skills as the 9th highest.
In 2015, OECD ranked Russian students’ mathematics and science skills as the 34th best in the world, between Sweden and Iceland. In 2016 the US company Bloomberg rated Russia’s higher education as the third best in the world, measuring the percentage of high-school graduates who go on to attend college, the annual science and engineering graduates as percent of all college graduates, and science and engineering graduates as percent of the labor force. In 2014, Russia was the 6th most popular destination for international students. Joseph Stiglitz, a former chief economist of the World Bank, states that one of the good things that Russia inherited from the Soviet era is “a high level of education, especially in technical areas so important for the New Economy”. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Kindergartens, unlike schools, are regulated by regional and local authorities. The improvement of the economy after the 1998 crisis, coupled with historical demographic peak, resulted in an increase in birth rate, first recorded in 2005. Large cities encountered shortage of kindergarten vacancies earlier, in 2002. 2008 school year, an increase from 58,503 in the previous year. 2008 number includes 4,965 advanced learning schools specializing in foreign languages, mathematics etc. Eleven-year secondary education in Russia is compulsory since September 1, 2007.
Children are accepted to first year at the age of 6 or 7, depending on individual development of each child. Until 1990, starting age was set at seven years and schooling lasted ten years for students who were planning to proceed to higher education in Universities. Students who were planning to proceed to technical schools were doing so, as a rule, after the 8th year. The switch from ten to eleven-year term was motivated by continuously increasing load in middle and senior years. Children of elementary classes are normally separated from other classes within their own floor of a school building.
Their number decreased from 349,000 in 1999 to 317,000 in 2005. The school year extends from September 1 to end of May and is divided into four terms. Western countries, schoolchildren or their parents have no choice of study subjects. Upon completion of a nine-year programme the student has a choice of either completing the remaining two years at normal school, or of a transfer to a specialized professional training school. Although all male pupils are eligible to postpone their conscription to receive higher education, they must be at least signed-up for the admission tests into the university the moment they get the conscription notice from the army. Males of conscription age that chose not to continue their education at any stage usually get notice from the army within half a year after their education ends, because of the periodic nature of recruitment periods in Russian army.
Traditionally, the universities and institutes conducted their own admissions tests regardless of the applicants’ school record. University heads, notably Moscow State University rector Viktor Sadovnichiy, resisted the novelty, arguing that their schools cannot survive without charging the applicants with their own entrance hurdles. Nevertheless, the legislators enacted USE in February 2007. Awarding USE grades involves two stages. In this system, a “primary grade” is the sum of points for completed tasks, with each of the tasks having a maximum number of points allocated to it. The maximum total primary grade varies by subject, so that one might obtain, for instance, a primary grade of 23 out of 37 in mathematics and a primary grade of 43 out of 80 in French. The first nationwide USE session covering all regions of Russia was held in the summer of 2008.