In many developing countries, iron deficiency anaemia is aggravated by worm infections, malaria and other infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis. The major health consequences include poor pregnancy outcome, impaired physical and cognitive development, increased risk of morbidity in children and reduced work productivity in adults. As well as affecting a large number of children and women in developing countries, it is the only nutrient deficiency which is also significantly prevalent in The organization of young children in preschool Countries. Iron deficiency affects more people than any other condition, constituting a public health condition of epidemic proportions.
More subtle in its manifestations than, for example, protein-energy malnutrition, iron deficiency exacts its heaviest overall toll in terms of ill-health, premature death and lost earnings. Iron deficiency and anaemia reduce the work capacity of individuals and entire populations, bringing serious economic consequences and obstacles to national development. Overall, it is the most vulnerable, the poorest and the least educated who are disproportionately affected by iron deficiency, and it is they who stand to gain the most by its reduction. The health consequences are stealthy but devastating, invisibly eroding the development potential of individuals, societies and national economies.
Because of their close links, iron deficiency and anaemia should be tackled simultaneously using a multifactorial and multi sectorial approach. It should also be tailored to local conditions and take into account anaemia’s specific aetiology and the population groups affected. Eliminating iron deficiency anaemia demands truly courageous efforts from governments the world over and the international community. WHO has developed a comprehensive package of public health measures addressing all aspects of iron deficiency and anaemia. This package is being implemented in countries with high levels of iron deficiency and anaemia, malaria, helminth infections and schistosomiasis. Dietary diversification including iron-rich foods and enhancement of iron absorption, food fortification and iron supplementation. Immunization and control programmes for malaria, hookworm and schistosomiasis.
Prevention and control of other nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, folate and vitamin A. To support countries in combating anaemia, WHO has developed guidelines on prevention and control of iron deficiency and anaemia together with a manual for assessing the magnitude of the problem and monitoring interventions. Because iron deficiency anaemia drains the life and vitality out of development. We have both the means and potential to achieve widespread improvement. We need to apply both energetically. An estimated 250 000 to 500 000 vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight. In pregnant women VAD causes night blindness and may increase the risk of maternal mortality.
Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in more than half of all countries, especially in Africa and South-East Asia, hitting hardest young children and pregnant women in low-income countries. Crucial for maternal and child survival, supplying adequate vitamin A in high-risk areas can significantly reduce mortality. Conversely, its absence causes a needlessly high risk of disease and death. For children, lack of vitamin A causes severe visual impairment and blindness, and significantly increases the risk of severe illness, and even death, from such common childhood infections as diarrhoeal disease and measles. For pregnant women in high-risk areas, vitamin A deficiency occurs especially during the last trimester when demand by both the unborn child and the mother is highest.
The mother’s deficiency is demonstrated by the high prevalence of night blindness during this period. The impact of VAD on mother-to-child HIV transmission needs further investigation. To successfully combat VAD, short-term interventions and proper infant feeding must be backed up by long-term sustainable solutions. Vitamin A is a crucial component. Since breast milk is a natural source of vitamin A, promoting breastfeeding is the best way to protect babies from VAD. 6 months and 6 years of age can reduce overall child mortality by a quarter in areas with significant VAD.
However, because breastfeeding is time-limited and the effect of vitamin A supplementation capsules lasts only 4-6 months, they are only initial steps towards ensuring better overall nutrition and not long-term solutions. Cultivating the garden, both literally and figuratively, is the next phase necessary to achieve long-term results. Food fortification takes over where supplementation leaves off. Food fortification, for example sugar in Guatemala, maintains vitamin A status, especially for high-risk groups and needy families. For vulnerable rural families, for instance in Africa and South-East Asia, growing fruits and vegetables in home gardens complements dietary diversification and fortification and contributes to better lifelong health. In addition, over the past few years, WHO, UNICEF and others have provided support to countries in delivering vitamin A supplements.
In addition, Johnson also made several more accusations, including that people at the daycare had sexual encounters with animals, that “Peggy drilled a child under the arms” and “Ray flew in the air. Ray Buckey was questioned, but was not prosecuted due to lack of evidence. The following procedure is obviously an unpleasant one, but to protect the rights of your children as well as the rights of the accused, this inquiry is necessary for a complete investigation. Videotapes of the interviews with children were reviewed by Michael Maloney, a British clinical psychologist and professor of psychiatry, as an expert witness regarding the interviewing of children.
Some of the accusations were described as “bizarre”, overlapping with accusations that mirrored the just-starting satanic ritual abuse panic. Some of the abuse was alleged to have occurred in secret tunnels beneath the school. Several excavations turned up evidence of old buildings on the site and other debris from before the school was built, but no evidence of any secret chambers or tunnels was found. Johnson, who made the initial allegations, made bizarre and impossible statements about Raymond Buckey, including that he could fly.