This article is about institutions for learning. For the pre-school period mental development concept of “schooling”, see Education.
In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary and secondary education. There are also non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be required when the government does not supply adequate, or special education. In home schooling and online schools, teaching and learning take place outside a traditional school building. The concept of grouping students together in a centralized location for learning has existed since Classical antiquity.
Islam was another culture that developed a school system in the modern sense of the word. Emphasis was put on knowledge, which required a systematic way of teaching and spreading knowledge, and purpose-built structures. Under the Ottomans, the towns of Bursa and Edirne became the main centers of learning. Obligatory school attendance became common in parts of Europe during the 18th century. In Denmark-Norway, this was introduced as early as in 1739-1741, the primary end being to increase the literacy of the almue, i. Loyola School, Chennai, India — run by the Catholic Diocese of Madras. Christian missionaries played a pivotal role in establishing modern schools in India.
The use of the term school varies by country, as do the names of the various levels of education within the country. In the United Kingdom, most schools are publicly funded and known as state schools or maintained schools in which tuition is provided free. There are also private schools or independent schools that charge fees. In much of the Commonwealth of Nations, including Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Kenya, and Tanzania, the term school refers primarily to pre-university institutions. In ancient India, schools were in the form of Gurukuls. During the Mughal rule, Madrasahs were introduced in India to educate the children of Muslim parents.