Please forward this error screen to 172. The association between HIV infection and the relevance of adaptation of children of early age faltering in children has been reported in both resource-rich and resource-poor settings. These interactions have particular relevance because of the significant geographical overlap between regions with high HIV prevalence and regions where food insecurity and moderate and severe malnutrition are also common.
In situations where this cannot be achieved, supplementation may be necessary. If growth faltering is identified then the cause needs to be identified. In particular, diarrhoeal illnesses and tuberculosis can result in significant weight loss. Extra energy can be provided through a combination of increasing the energy density of family foods, increasing the quantity of food consumed each day and providing energy supplements. HIV-infected children with severe malnutrition have a higher risk of mortality than uninfected malnourished children. Arpadi S, Cuff PA, Kotler DP, Wang J, Bamji M, Lange M, Pierson RN, Matthews DE. Growth velocity, fat-free mass and energy intake are inversely related to viral load in HIV-infected children.
Callens S, Shabani N, Lusiama J, Lelo P, Kitetele F, Colebunders R, et al. Mortality and associated factors after initiation of pediatric antiretroviral treatment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Irlam J, Visser MM, Rollins NN, Siegfried N. Micronutrient supplementation in children and adults with HIV infection. Vitamin A supplements: a guide to their use in the treatment and prevention of vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia.
Coutsoudis A, Bobat RA, Coovadia KM, Kuhn L, Tsai WY, Stein ZA. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. Fawzi W, Mbise RL, Hertzmark E, Fataki MR, Herrera MG, Ndossi G, Spiegelman D. A randomized trial of vitamin A supplements in relation to mortality among HIV-infected and uninfected children in Tanzania. Fawzi W, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, Fataki M, Hertzmark E, Ndossi G. Vitamin A supplements and diarrhoeal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Semba R, Ndugwa C, Perry RT, Clark TD, Jackson JB, Melikian G, Tielsch J, Mmiro F. Effect of periodic vitamin A supplementation on mortality and morbidity of HIV-infected children in Uganda: a controlled clinical trial. Safety and efficacy of zinc supplementation for children with HIV-1 infection in South Africa: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Management of a child with a serious infection or malnutrition: guidelines for the care at the first-referral level in developing countries. Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. This article needs additional citations for verification. The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The critical period hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. If language input does not occur until after this time, the individual will never achieve a full command of language—especially grammatical systems. The evidence for such a period is limited, and support stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in biology such as visual development, but nonetheless is widely accepted.
In second-language acquisition, the strongest empirical evidence for the critical period hypothesis is in the study of accent, where most older learners do not reach a native-like level. Lenneberg’s critical period hypothesis states that there are maturational constraints on the time a first language can be acquired. If language acquisition does not occur by puberty, some aspects of language can be learned but full mastery cannot be achieved. Support for the critical period theory stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in biology such as visual development.