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Viewpoints is a technique of composition that acts as a medium for thinking about and acting upon movement, gesture and creative space. Mary Overlie considered the most important. Note the change from the classical and modern periods in performance art, where story always took precedence over the other elements. Architecture – The physical environment, the space, and whatever belongs to it or constitutes it, including permanent and non-permanent features.
Topography – The movement over landscape, floor pattern, design and colours. Behavioral gesture: realistic gesture belonging to the physical world as we observe it every day. Tempo – How fast or slow something happens on stage. Kinesthetic Response – A spontaneous reaction to a motion that occurs outside of oneself. An instinctive response to an external stimulus. External: repeating a movement occurring outside one’s body. Psychological or narrative content ascribed to movement.
The movement of different parts of your body. All of the different elements influence each other and work together, and can “cause” a change in a different element. For example, the shape of your body may carry a certain emotion with it as well – something in the space of your environment may make a story out of what you are doing – etc. The actors must focus first on the isolation of each separate viewpoint element on its own, before integrating and working them all together. It’s often that a performer finds one of the elements comes naturally, and perhaps uses that one element they really understand to access the other elements, which they must work to become more familiar with. In their book, The Viewpoints Book: A Practical Guide to Viewpoints and Composition, Anne Bogart and Tina Landau identify the primary Viewpoints as those relating to Time – which are Tempo, Duration, Kinesthetic Response, and Repetition – and those relating to Space – which are Shape, Gesture, Architecture, Spatial Relationship and Topography. Bogart recognizes that these are not the only Viewpoints, just the ones she finds most useful for the actors with whom she works.
The Viewpoints Book: A Practical Guide to Viewpoints and Composition. A Director Prepares: Seven Essays on Art and Theatre. And Then, You Act: Making Art in an Unpredictable World. Bartow, Arthur, 2006, “The Training of the American Actor. Dixon, Michael Bigelow and Joel A. This page was last edited on 4 July 2017, at 04:45. This article is about the basic principles to train muscular strength.
For strength training using free weights or weight machines, see weight training. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Strength training is typically associated with the production of lactate, which is a limiting factor of exercise performance. Regular endurance exercise leads to adaptations in skeletal muscle which can prevent lactate levels from rising during strength training. This section needs additional citations for verification. The benefits of weight training include greater muscular strength, improved muscle tone and appearance, increased endurance and enhanced bone density. Many people take up weight training to improve their physical attractiveness.
There is evidence that a body type consisting of broad shoulders and a narrow waist, attainable through strength training, is the most physically attractive male attribute according to women participating in the research. Workouts elevate metabolism for up to 14 hours following 45-minutes of vigorous exercise. Strength training also provides functional benefits. Stronger muscles improve posture, provide better support for joints, and reduce the risk of injury from everyday activities. Though strength training can stimulate the cardiovascular system, many exercise physiologists, based on their observation of maximal oxygen uptake, argue that aerobics training is a better cardiovascular stimulus. Strength training may be important to metabolic and cardiovascular health. Recent evidence suggests that resistance training may reduce metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk.