The technique of guidance of children

Enhanced interrogation techniques” or “enhanced interrogation” is a euphemism for the U. The the technique of guidance of children of detainees subjected to these methods has never been authoritatively established, nor how many died as a result of the interrogation regime, though this number is believed to be at least 100.

Debates arose over whether “enhanced interrogation” violated U. American and European officials including former CIA Director Leon Panetta, former CIA officers, a Guantanamo prosecutor, and a military tribunal judge, have called “enhanced interrogation” a euphemism for torture. In July 2014, the European Court of Human Rights formally ruled that “enhanced interrogation” is torture, and ordered Poland to pay restitution to men tortured at a CIA black site there. 11 attacks, Bush administration officials conferring by video link from bunkers decided to treat the attacks as acts of war, rather than merely crimes. The question arose: were captured prisoners to be treated as prisoners of war? In April 2002 the CIA had captured its first important prisoner, Abu Zubaydah, who was transferred to a CIA black site and at the suggestion of psychologist James Mitchell the CIA embarked on interrogation methods which included sleep deprivation using bright lights and loud music—still prior to any legal authorization from the US Justice Department.

Jose Rodriguez, head of the CIA’s clandestine service, asked his superiors for authorization for what Rodriguez called an “alternative set of interrogation procedures. The CIA sought immunity from prosecution, sometimes known as a “get out of jail free card. After the Justice Department completed what are now known as the Torture Memos, Condoleezza Rice told the CIA that the techniques were approved in July 2002. In addition, in 2002 and 2003, the CIA says they briefed several Democratic congressional leaders on the proposed “enhanced interrogation technique” program. At least one Bush administration official opposed torturing prisoners, Condoleezza Rice’s most senior adviser Philip Zelikow.

Upon learning details of the program, Zelikow wrote a memo to Rice contesting the Justice Department’s Torture Memos, believing them wrong both legally and as a matter of policy. The SERE program, which Mitchell and Jessen would reverse engineer, was used to train pilots and other soldiers on how to resist “brainwashing” techniques assumed to have been employed by the Chinese to extract false confessions from captured Americans during the Korean War. The psychologists relied heavily on experiments done by American psychologist Martin Seligman in the 1970s on learned helplessness. In these experiments caged dogs were exposed to severe electric shocks in a random way in order to completely break their will to resist.

Internal FBI memos and press reports have pointed to SERE training as the basis for some of the harshest techniques authorised for use on detainees by the Pentagon in 2002 and 2003. A March 22, 2005, sworn statement by the former chief of the Interrogation Control Element at Guantánamo said instructors from SERE also taught their methods to interrogators of the prisoners in Cuba. According to the SERE affiliate and two other sources familiar with the program, after September 11 several psychologists versed in SERE techniques began advising interrogators at Guantánamo Bay and elsewhere. Some of these psychologists essentially “tried to reverse-engineer” the SERE program, as the affiliate put it. SERE training seem to have been applied at Guantánamo. February 2002 memorandum signed by President George W. However, the Bush administration’s February 2002 memorandum had, in fact, stated that only al-Qaeda detainees were not covered by the Geneva Conventions.