Theories of mental development of the child

The pruning process is shown in this theories of mental development of the child that was constructed from MRI scans of healthy children and teens. Red indicates more gray matter, blue less gray matter. Mental age is a concept related to intelligence. It looks at how a specific child, at a specific age—usually today, now—performs intellectually, compared to average intellectual performance for that physical age, measured in years.

The physical age of the child is compared to the intellectual performance of the child, based on performance in tests and live assessments by a psychologist. However, mental age varies according to what kind of intelligence is measured. A child’s intellectual age can be average for his physical age but the same child’s emotional intelligence can be immature for his physical age. In this psychologists often remark girls are more emotionally mature than boys in the tween years.

Also, a six-year-old child intellectually gifted in Piaget terms can remain a three-year-old child in terms of emotional maturity. During much of the nineteenth century, theories of intelligence focused on measuring the size of human skulls. Anthropologist well known for their attempts in correlating cranial size and capacity with intellectual potential are Samuel Morton and Paul Broca. The modern theories of intelligence began to emerge along with experimental psychology.

This is when much of psychology was moving from philosophical to more biology and medical science basis. In 1890, James Cattell published what some consider the first “mental test”. Cattell was more focused on heredity rather than environment. This spurs much of the debate about the nature of intelligence. Mental age was first defined by the French psychologist Alfred Binet, who introduced the intelligence test in 1905, with the assistance of Theodore Simon.

Binet’s experiments on French schoolchildren laid the framework for future experiments into the mind throughout the Twentieth Century. Henry Herbert Goddard was the first psychologist to bring Binet’s test to the United States. Goddard was amongst one of the many psychologists in the 1910s that believed intelligence was a fixed quantity. While Binet believed this wasn’t the case, the majority of those in the U. These two tests were split into two different ones for children.

The WAIS-IV is the known current publication of the test for adults. No matter what the child’s chronological age, if the mental age is the same as the chronological age, then the IQ will equal 100. Modern intelligence tests, including the current Stanford-Binet test, no longer compute scores using the IQ formula. Instead, intelligence tests give a score that reflects how far the person’s performance deviates from the average performance of others who are the same age, arbitrarily defined as an average score of 100. Regarding the theory of mental age divided by physical age x 100.

Otherwise regular people would have IQ’s of 250 normally, and Einsteins IQ is 160. An IQ or intelligence quotient, is a score derived from one of several different standardized tests designed to assess intelligence. The mental age is the age group which scored such a result on average. Mental age, as well as IQ have limitations. Binet did not believe these measures should be used for a single, permanent and inborn level of intelligence.