Food production comprises such factors as land use and tenure, soil management, crop breeding and selection, crop vectors of development of preschool education, livestock breeding and management and harvesting. Among the components of the food system, e. For example, household decision-making behaviour with regard to food is influenced by nutrition knowledge and by cultural practices with regard to food allocation within the household as well as by purchasing power and market prices.
Food systems are further embedded in environments which differ according to a variety of factors such as agro-ecology, climate, social aspects, economics, health and policy. The model presented in Figure 8 is useful in conceptualizing the various activities that determine food security and nutritional well-being and the interactions within the food system. Concepts in household food security Food security is one of the important conditions that must be achieved for an individual to be nutritionally secure and to maintain good health. The concept of adequate food is an important part of the current definition of household food security. Clearly, what is adequate for one member is not adequate for another. A person’s requirements for different nutrients depend on many factors including age, sex, level of activity and physiological status. It should provide adequate energy and protein.
It should be safe and free from contaminants, parasites and toxins which may be injurious to health. It should be culturally acceptable and, in addition, should satisfy the palate and be capable of providing pleasure to the consumer. Food security has been a global concern since the 1974 World Food Conference, held at a time when world food supplies were tight and large-scale food shortages and starvation appeared imminent. Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes were formed. By the early 1980s many of the assumptions underlying the 1974 conference proved to be unfounded. Increased food production was not the simple answer to the hunger problem. The problem became recognized as one of distribution to reach the population.
The diet can meet all these requirements when it is diversified and constituted in the right proportions and when it can satisfy the preferences and food habits of the consumer. Whereas before the 1990s food security was equated primarily with energy sufficiency, the current approach to food security emphasizes the composition of the diet, especially with respect to micronutrients. Household food security, as noted earlier, depends not only on the availability of an adequate and sustainable supply of food, but also on the strategies employed by households for its acquisition. The ability of different households to establish access to the food supply can be considered both in terms of production and in terms of the people’s ability to exchange their assets for food, for example through bartering, purchase or food-for-work.